Youth offending

Introduction to Social Work. David Gower and Jackie Plenty. S134487

The country I have chosen to discourse is Youth Offending and intend to look at options that will assist forestall re-offending and how we, as Social Workers, work as portion of a squad within Youth Offending. I intend to look at what countries of society are more likely to pique or re-offend.

A immature wrongdoer is defined as person under 18 old ages of age who has committed an offense. The legal age of ‘criminal duty ‘ in England and Wales, is 10 old ages old, hence anyone under the age of 10 can non be held responsible for their actions.

Anyone aged between 10 and 14 old ages old is presumed to understand the difference between right and incorrect, so they can be convicted of a condemnable offense if found guilty.

Adolescents between 14 and 17 old ages old are to the full responsible for any offenses they commit, but they are sentenced otherwise in relation to grownups. Young wrongdoers are assessed by the ( 1 ) Youth Justice System ( YJS ) . There are a figure of hazard factors which may do a immature individual more likely to go involved in perpetrating offense or anti-social behavior. Whilst non thorough these include a deficiency of instruction, hapless household relationships, holding household members or equals who have offended, and abuse of substances. The YJS purpose to undertake these jobs ( )

Harmonizing to the Children Act 1989, the kid ‘s public assistance shall be the tribunal ‘s paramount consideration. Therefore why do we lock so many kids up, but allow terrorist to walk free under a control order? ( Part 1 Welfare of the kid )

In the United Kingdom we lock up more kids than any other state in Europe. 90 % of immature wrongdoers put in prison will reoffend within two old ages of release. The UK ‘s ( 2 ) Youth Justice Board spends 70 % of its budget on detention, 5 % on preventative methods ; go forthing merely 25 % for renewing and other methods. The age of condemnable duty in England, Wales and Northern Ireland is 10 old ages old. In Scotland it ‘s eight.

‘Interviews with immature wrongdoers revealed litanies of captive female parents, maltreatment at place, street life, and failed foster attention. About all such kids are excluded from school, and other efforts to deviate them are absurd: young person nines with “ a pool tabular array, one Television and one PlayStation to contend over ” . ‘

( radio-youth justness ) A

The Crime and Disorder Act was legislated in 1998 for the first clip. Working together as portion of the new Multi-agency ( 3 ) Young person Piquing Team under subdivision 39 ( 5 ) a Young person Piquing Team ( YOT ) would now dwell of a Social worker, a constabulary officer, a probation officer, a nominative individual from the instruction section & A ; a nominative individual from the wellness authorization. Working as portion of a YOT involves being a member of perchance the most diverse and broad runing multi-agency squad within Social Care.

Under the ( 4 ) GSCC codification of pattern Social workers have 6 criterions ( 5 ) that need to be maintained within Social Care scenes guaranting that you can construct up a relationship with your client and their carers, whilst utilizing this we besides need to take into history the National Occupational Standards and utilize these to supply a benchmark within our pattern. Within Youth Justice the National Standards are set by the Home Secretary and issued by the YJB. The Standards supply a benchmark to mensurate good pattern whilst working with kids and immature people who offend, every bit good as their households and victims.

‘Social work has little to lend and small wish to lend to the effectivity of prisons if one takes the position that their primary intent is to penalize and mortify their inmates. If, on the other manus, captives are at that place as a penalty, non for extra penalty, Social Work has an of import function, prison based Social Workers can play a critical portion in assisting captives maintain contact with communities, fixing them for constructive activities after their release, and supplying chances for contemplation on their offending and planning for a better life. Social Work is based upon a belief in self-respect and worth of all human existences, and in single ‘s ability to alter ‘ . ( Williams cited in )

The function of societal work may be more effectual if partnered with a service user utilizing a Care & amp ; Control system, therefore avoiding more tutelary sentences. The service user would be good cognizant they had narrowly avoided a tutelary sentence and would be guided by the Social Worker if they do non conform to the understanding that they could stop up back in tribunal and finally back to Prison. Having a basic apprehension of the Human Development every bit good as a good cognition of Social Work Codes of Practice will assist us to understand the service users ‘ function within society. We need to assist authorise the service user into doing the right determination for them, by giving them the agencies and aid to make it. By handling them with self-respect and regard at a degree they can understand without them experiencing inferior or pressurised to do a determination by the Social Worker. Within this we can offer aid with past jobs they have suffered utilizing ( 6 ) S.W.O.T. analysis, reding, curfews, boundaries, mentoring, renewing work, speaking to parents and working with multiple bureaus to guarantee the service user gets the service and support they need. Helping the service user to advance positive alteration and aid cut down hazard.

A service user is a term used to emphasis a professional relationship. Service user engagement is seting the people who use our services in control of the lives offering support they may necessitate, to assist them get the better of their issues and authorising them to take more fulfilling lives.

The anti-social behavior orders were introduced by Tony Blair in 1998 and by 2005 55 per cent were being breached ( cited in article-1228445 Daily Mail ) is this because the tribunals and the constabulary are doing the ( 7 ) ASBO ‘s unrealistic, Puting out for the Young individual to neglect and interrupt the order, so they can so travel back to tribunal to acquire the immature individual of the streets. Working as professionals within the Multiagency scene of YOT we should be looking for chances to authorise the immature individual into run intoing realistic marks and non puting ASBO ‘s which we know they will be unable to follow with for assorted grounds. Under the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child ( 1989 ) State Parties recognise the right of every kid alleged as, accused of, or recognised as holding infringed the penal jurisprudence to be treated in a mode consistent with the publicity of the kid ‘s sense of self-respect and ego worth. ( Youth Justice and Social Work )

Piaget distinguished three phases in kids ‘s consciousness to regulations by playingA games, 1st ages up to 4-5, regulations non truly understood,2nd phase 4-5 up to 9-10, regulations were seen to be coming for a higher authorization ( e.g. grownups, God, town council ) 3rd phase 9-10 onwards regulations could be reciprocally changed by others. ( cited Understanding kids ‘s development )

Many immature people who become involved in force and offense have experienced this type of behavior from a parent or a equal, if they have learnt that this is the recognized manner of covering with a job and have seen or experienced this sort of maltreatment they may hold small self regard and comprehend this to be the right manner of covering with an issue.

As discussed by Paiget about kids larning and understanding regulations, if a kid is taught the incorrect moral standings by an grownup in phase 2, it could take to them following the incorrect way in life. Using this theory we can benchmark where a kid should be.

There was a bead in the figure of kids come ining the justness system for the first clip in 2007/08. Numbers of ‘first clip entrants ‘ aged 10 to 17 come ining the Youth Justice System in England and Wales were about 87,400, a autumn of about 7 per cent on the old twelvemonth. Slightly more than 2,700 of kids in this age group were in detention in England and Wales in December 2008, including around 500 kids aged 15 and under. The bulk of immature wrongdoers in detention were male childs ( 94 per cent ) . More than four-fifths ( 86 per cent ) of immature wrongdoers were held in Young Offenders Institutions, 8 per cent were in Secure Training Centres and 6 per cent were in Secure Children ‘s Homes.

Around 51,000 kids aged 10 to 17 were found guilty of chargeable offenses in 2007 and a farther 75,000 were cautioned. Of those found guilty of an chargeable offense, more than a 3rd ( 36 per cent ) were found guilty of larceny and managing stolen goods and about 14 per cent were found guilty of force against the individual. Boys aged 15 to 17 accounted for 69 per cent of all kids found guilty of chargeable offenses in 2007 including larceny and managing stolen goods ( 11,200 wrongdoers ) , force against the individual ( 5,500 wrongdoers ) , drug offenses ( 4,600 wrongdoers ) and burglary ( 4,500 wrongdoers ) .

( Beginning: Home Office, Ministry of Justice, Youth Justice Board )

In Order to assist forestall this from go oning the authorities launched a plan called Youth Inclusion plan ( 8 ) ( YIP ) which was established in 2000, and bespoke programmes for 8 to 17-year-olds, who are identified as being at high hazard of engagement in piquing or anti-social behavior. Whilst the plans are run for the identified kids, YIPs are besides unfastened to other immature people in the local country. The programme operates in110 of the most deprived/high offense estates in England and Wales.

YIPs purpose to cut down young person offense and anti-social behavior in vicinities where they work. Young people on the YIP are identified through a figure of different bureaus including young person piquing squads ( YOTs ) , police, societal services, local instruction governments or schools, and other local bureaus. YIP receives a grant each twelvemonth from the Youth Justice Board yearly via its Youth Offending Team and is required to happen the same sum of support via Local Agencies.

( Cited YJB/Prevention YIPS )

Working in echt partnership with other bureaus and being able to entree more information will enable the societal worker to measure the service users needs quicker and have a elaborate history of the client, which will assist everyone involved within the multiagency partnership. Most referrals will come via a common appraisal signifier ( 9 ) CAF which is used to foreground the countries each person bureau feels the service user is at hazard and working within the comprehensive model for appraisal.

An independent national rating of the first three old ages of YIPs found that:

  • apprehension rates for the 50 immature people considered to be most at hazard of offense in each YIP had been reduced by 65 %
  • of those who had offended before fall ining the programme, 73 % were arrested for fewer offenses after prosecuting with a Yip
  • of those who had non offended antecedently but who were at hazard, 74 % did non travel on to be arrested after prosecuting with a YIP.

( Cited YJB/Prevention YIPS )

Even though these consequences prove YIP to be an effectual undertaking it struggles for the necessary support. If YIP had more readily available support there would be more chance to step in early with the affected children.A Earlier innovation would assist to refocus the energies of kids. This could intend that finally that we can hold early intercession programmes running in all countries where kids are more at hazard and this could potentially forestall my kids going involved in offense.

‘The grounds shows that step ining early with the most ambitious households in this state works. ‘ Ed Balls MP, Children ‘s Secretary ( cited Children & A ; Young People Now )

The struggle between Social work moralss and the legal systems is arguably more distinguishable in the pattern of young person justness than any country within the Social work field. Positive, constructive accomplishment through societal work intercession for a immature individual will promote the immature individual to take duty for their actions and authorise them to reflect their options whilst doing determinations.For a immature individual, age favoritism and labeling frequently occur, which could give the immature individual an attitude and do them experience rather defensive, paranoid sometimes.

I think Society perchance needs to alter its manner of thought, our New Labour authorities has passed over 900 new Torahs since coming to power. This has had an consequence on how we view kids and immature people, 20 old ages ago we had 339 kids in prison, today we have over 3000, does this mean that kids have become 10 times more unsafe? . I do n’t believe that kids and immature people have truly changed every bit much as statistics say, I believe it is because we have excessively many Torahs and because some people live in such a dysfunctional mode, that they prefer to be in prison as they are warm, safe, can acquire makings, they have friends and they get 3 repasts twenty-four hours and it is a modus operandi for them, whereas life within a household that is dysfunctional could intend populating with force, drug or intoxicant maltreatment and non holding their basic demands met on a regular footing. Everything that happens within a service user ‘s life is logical to them.

A rationalist believes that offense is non chosen but caused mostly by factors beyond the wrongdoer ‘s control. In kernel, the belief is that wrongdoers merely ca n’t assist themselves, certain familial, psychological or environmental factors have influenced their behaviour and the being of these factors means that wrongdoers are about pre-programmed to go felons. This is one of the great contradictions of the rationalist attack to offense is its focal point on reformation and rehabilitation. ( Taylor et. Al. ( 1973 ) cited in Youth Justice and Social Work


  1. YJS- Youth Justice System
  2. YJB – Young person Justice Board
  3. YOT- Youth Offending Team
  4. GSCC – General Social Care Council
  5. GSCC-A 6 Standards
  6. S.W.O.T – Strength, Weakness, Opportunities & A ; Threats.
  7. ASBO- Anti Social BehaviourA Order
  8. YIP- Youth Inclusion Program
  9. CAF- Common Assessment Form

General Social Care Council Standards: Code of pattern.

  1. As a societal attention worker, you must protect the rights and promote the involvements of service users and carers.
  2. As a societal attention worker, you must endeavor to set up and keep the trust and assurance of service users and carers.
  3. As a societal attention worker, you must advance the independency of service users while protecting them every bit far as possible from danger or injury.
  4. As a societal attention worker, you must esteem the rights of service users while seeking to guarantee that their behavior does non harm themselves or other people.
  5. As a societal attention worker, you must continue public trust and assurance in societal attention services.
  6. As a societal attention worker, you must be accountable for the quality of your work and take duty for keeping and bettering your cognition and accomplishments.


  1. hypertext transfer protocol: //
  2. hypertext transfer protocol: //
  3. Oxford: Blackwell.
  4. Davies, M. ( 2000 ) The Blackwell Companion To Social Work, Oxford: Blackwell.
  5. hypertext transfer protocol: //
  6. Dugmore, P. and Pickford, J. ( 2006 ) Youth Justice and Social Work, Exeter: Learning Matters.
  7. Smith, P.K. and Cowie, H. ( 1996 ) A Understanding Children ‘s Development ( 2nd ed. ) , A A A A A A A A A A A A A Oxford: Blackwell. Page 198
  8. Beginning: Home Office, Ministry of Justice, Youth Justice Board hypertext transfer protocol: // id=2200 )
  9. hypertext transfer protocol: //
  10. Ed Balls quotation mark ( Children & A ; Young People Now ) 3-9.12.09
  11. Dugmore, P. and Pickford, J. ( 2006 ) A A A A A A A A A A A A A Youth Justice and Social Work, A A A A A A A A A A A A A Exeter: Learning Matters. Page 49 Taylor

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