Woman Representation in Television Ads
Aim and Hypothesis
My hypothesis is that the function of adult females in Television advertizements has non changed in line with the altering function of adult females in society, and adult females are therefore still being displayed in traditional functions within Television adverts.
I believe that this of great sociological importance as, despite statute law trying to take barriers to adult females come oning within administrations, and make true meritocracies, the media still fails to stand for adult females as being suited to of import functions. This position of adult females is non merely harmful for today’s adult females seeking to come on, but besides for immature adult females developing calling and life aspirations.
Contexts and Concepts
The traditional functions of work forces and adult females as ‘bread winner’ and ‘home maker’ have been an built-in portion of the societal cloth since the beginning of recorded history. However, in the 20th century, these functions have evolved as a consequence of many political, societal and technological alterations, and as such, Wee et Al ( 1995 ) studies that the old stereotypes of “men as breadwinners and adult females as homemakers have taken a whipping as adult females liberated themselves through instruction and scaled the corporate ladder.” Indeed, as the universe continues to impel itself into the new information age offered by new information and communications engineering and digital devices, these functions have been altering even more quickly.
However, despite these developments, adult females still make up less than 10 % of the managers of FTSE 100 companies, and concerns still fail to do equal commissariats to let adult females to equilibrate work life and household life. ( Ward, 2004 ) Indeed, many adult females are pushed, frequently comparatively uncomplainingly, onto lower wage degrees and calling waies one time they have started a household. As a consequence, a sub hypothesis is that the representation of adult females in advertisement has an impact of women’s positions of their ability to come on within administrations, particularly one time they have started a household.
This bomber hypothesis has arisen from Wee et al’s ( 1995 ) claim that sex-role stereotyping in advertisement has been of increasing concern and contention throughout the 2nd half of the last century, because of the consequence advertisement has on modeling attitudes. Pollay ( 1986 ) besides claimed that single attitudes are now learned partially from advertisement, as people are inundated by it mundane, and by reflecting narrowly defined functions for adult females, advertisement is believed to reenforce the impression that such functions are “proper” , “best” or “natural” . When these functions are repeated invariably without alteration, they become stereotypic. This sex pigeonholing in advertisement has been attacked by Pollay ( 1986 ) , as these stereotypes serve as hapless theoretical accounts and suppress sympathetic apprehension of single differences. He claimed that, if there were no other influences to counter the effects of advertisement, people would curtail their aspirations to those stereotypic functions.
The most effectual method of replying this hypothesis would be a study across a big figure of adult females, including adult females in professional functions, both senior and junior, adult females in more ‘traditional’ working functions, adult females who are non working, and adult females aged 11-18 in full clip instruction. This method would be appropriate to my hypothesis, and the sub hypothesis, as advertisement is mostly driven by consumer perceptual experiences, and therefore in order to analyze the function of adult females in advertisement, it is necessary to look at women’s perceptual experiences of said adverts.
The study would both analyze women’s perceptual experiences of how adult females are represented in advertizements, and would besides necessitate to look at how adult females, particularly immature adult females, are influenced by Television advertisement. It would besides be utile to supply advertizements from different periods over the last five decennaries, in order to demo adult females how advertizements have changed over clip. Potentially, obtaining a series of advertizements from one peculiar trade name or company could besides be utile, as it would demo how branding policy has changed over clip.
Practically, the sample size would necessitate to be considerable, in order to guarantee that all the different bomber groups to be studied are statistically important in size. An cyberspace based study would probably be best for this, nevertheless for groups of adult females of school age, the study could potentially be inserted into a normal lesson agenda. Ethically, attention would hold to be taken to avoid making the really consequence the study is seeking to mensurate, particularly amongst adult females of school age. Indeed, if the adult females surveyed, peculiarly the younger 1s, were told the intent of the study, and some of the theoretical background, it might impact their replies, and might besides ensue in them experiencing more discerning about their calling chances.
Besides, the consequences of the study may be influenced by the respondent’s background and experiences. For illustration, a immature adult female whose female parent is the CEO of a major company would theoretically be more likely to believe that adult females could accomplish these places, when comparison to person whose female parent is a homemaker. Conversely, she may besides believe that the function of adult females in advertisement reflects a woman’s function in society well less, as it doesn’t reflect her ain mother’s function. The best manner to account for and avoid this prejudice would be to take demographic informations at the start of the study, and see if this correlates with the consequences.
The major job associated with the study is that it may turn out hard to derive adequate responses, particularly given the comparatively low figure of adult females in senior professional functions. Besides, whilst it would be comparatively easy to demo a aggregation of advertizements to a group of adult females aged 11-18: this could be done in school ; it would be well more hard to set up this for a group of homemakers or executives. Indeed, if an internet solution is used, it relies on people holding the necessary cyberspace entree, a likely job for homemakers, and holding sufficient clip, a likely job for executives.
Another job could be bias created within the study itself, due to the fact that the study would be oppugning both women’s attitudes to their functions in society, and their position of television’s representation of said function. Although both these variables are likely to be extremely correlated, jobs could happen if the study is ill worded or structured, and therefore leads adult females to believe that advertisement is keeping them back.
A possible job could be caused by the intense media coverage of the run for equality amongst the sexes, as this may polarize sentiment to a greater grade than would be expected due to the advertisement itself. This may be compounded by the fact that, theoretically, the adult females being surveyed may experience that they should utilize the chance to voice stronger sentiments that they really feel, and therefore ‘strike a blow’ for women’s equality. This could harm the dependability of the consequences, and besides be really hard to observe.
One concluding job would be that the merchandise being advertised can impact the representation of adult females in the advertizement. For illustration, adverts for kitchens are more likely to demo adult females in their traditional functions, than adverts for Blackberry’s or PDAs.
- Pollay, R. W. ( 1986 )The deformed mirror: contemplations on the unintended effects of advertisementJournal of Marketing, Vol. 50, April, p. 18.
- Ward, L. ( 2004 )‘Mummy track’ supports adult females from top occupations.The Guardian ; Thursday December 30, 2004.
- Wee, C-H. Choony, M-L. and Tambyah, S-K. ( 1995 )Sexual activity function portraiture in telecasting advertisement.International Marketing Review ; Vol. 12, Issue 1, p. 49.