The Residential Child Care Processes And Practices Social Work Essay

For the intents of confidentiality all individualities have been changed to guarantee namelessness throughout the undermentioned assignment.

During this assignment I will besides pull on my ain cognition and pattern experience from secure and close support scenes.

To see the procedure and pattern of acknowledging immature people ( YP ) into residential attention today it is of import to hold an consciousness of the history of residential kid attention. The 2nd half of the nineteenth century saw the debut of Children ‘s places by altruists such as William Quarrier and the Reverend Jupp. Residential kid attention was provided in groups of little bungalows normally in rural locations. Residential kid attention today still contains charitable/voluntary intercessions. ( RGU 2007 )

Prior to 1983 there was no specific statute law to command the admittance of YP ‘s into unafraid adjustment, an exclusion to this was if a YP was convicted of a serious offense through the condemnable tribunals. In these fortunes the Secretary of State had the power to put the YP in a topographic point of security. A hearing could call a specific school for a YP but it was left to the caput of the constitution as to whether or non the arrangement was in a secure or unfastened scene. This meant that the YP could be moved between units within the residential constitution without informing the hearing system. This raised concerns that the European Convention of Human Rights was being breached by Scotland. The three caputs of the bing constitutions and the Scots office set out standards for admittance into unafraid adjustment. This resulted in new statute law being added to the wellness and societal services and societal adjudications Act ( 1993 ) which took consequence from 1st February 1984. ( Secure in the Knowledge, 2005, p7, p8 )

Scandals that led to public questions affecting the criterions of residential attention for YP ‘s have besides contributed to the higher degree of attention now provided.

The grounds a YP is referred to the newsman and kids ‘s hearing system vary, the YP may hold been abused physically or sexually or both, prolonged absent from school without sensible cause, offended, been a victim of an offense or intimidation, misused drugs or intoxicant, be out with parental control, or any combination of these could be evidences for referral. ( Children ‘s hearings Act 2011 )

The foundation of the kids ‘s hearing system has laid out guidelines for the kids ‘s newsman and panel. ( ibid )

When a Reporter receives a referral, they will get down an initial probe to make up one’s mind what is in the kid or YP ‘s best involvements. The Reporter has to see whether there is adequate grounds to back up the evidences of the referral and so make up one’s mind if mandatory steps of supervising are required. The Reporter has statutory discretion when make up one’s minding the following measure, they may

aˆ? decide that no farther action is needed.

aˆ? refer the YP to the local authorization. This normally involves societal work support.

aˆ? arrange a kids ‘s hearing to see a compulsory steps of supervising for the YP.

A hearing panel is made up of three members of the populace who have had preparation in this country. It must be made up of both male and female members, and purposes to hold a balance of age and experience. One of the panel members will chair the hearing. The hearing thinks about and makes determinations on the public assistance of the YP, taking into history all of the relevant fortunes, including any hazard pickings and piquing behavior. ( Secure in the Knowledge, 2005, p7, p8 )

Harmonizing to Geting it Right for Every Child ( GIRFEC ) Consultation Pack on the Review of the Children ‘s Hearings System, the most common determination for disposal of a hearing is a supervising demand. This means that the YP will hold contact with a societal worker, and other identified professionals on a regular footing. A supervising demand can hold any status attached if the hearing thinks it will assist the YP. The local authorization has to set the supervising demand into action. Some illustrations of conditions attached to disposals are: seeing your appointed societal worker on a regular basis ; go toing specific programmes to turn to behaviors ; being placed in a residential school or in a secure unit due to specific concerns. ( GIRFEC )

Requests for arrangements must usually be made by Practice Team Workers. Exceptions to this are petitions from the out of hours Social Work Services or exigency referrals through the Criminal Justice system. Once initial applications for arrangement are received and deemed appropriate, the mentioning worker will be required to finish a Secure Referrals Application Form. This will so be considered by the following meeting of the Secure Referral Group. The chief rules steering this determination are: Secure Accommodation is a last resort, and all unafraid arrangements must be for the shortest clip possible. ( Edinburgh Secure Services 2009 )

It is ever better if there is a passage program put into topographic point for a YP coming into attention, but this is non ever available, as the YP may hold to be accommodated on an exigency footing, for their safety or the safety of others.

The admittance procedure is the same for all YP ‘s who are come ining the attention system. This is nevertheless a more relaxed procedure if the YP has a planned passage into attention. A passage program follows a basic four hebdomad program. The principals are.

Week 1, initiation, the keyworker, instance director ( keyteam ) will get down to go familiar with the YP ‘s background and file, do hazard appraisals, and get down to develop a passage program.

Week 2, passage program, this will include run intoing the YP, their callings and/ or household, discoursing the attention program and seting a passage program with visits to the unit into topographic point.

Week 3, presenting the YP to the unit by easing visits, run intoing staff and other immature people,

Week 4, starts edifice on Week 3, edifice and organizing relationships. Within the secure scene there would be readying for the stoping of the arrangement.

The keyworker from the secure unit would besides see the YP in the unfastened unit during the move, and one time they have moved, to supply support for their passage. ( Edinburgh Secure Services 2009 )

The keyteam and societal worker will look at the hazard factors for the YP. The YP and keyteam will construction attention program objectives which will be reviewed on a regular basis. The Looked After and Accommodated Children Reviews ( LAAC ) should besides regularly expression at the YP ‘s advancement through attention and in the attention program aims.

By following these guidelines the injury of being admitted into attention can be minimised although the kid or YP will still endure the feelings of loss and separation from their household, community and equals. Despite the efforts to do the passage into attention an easier one in my experience all immature people coming into attention find it straitening although these steps are good for the immature individual being admitted into the attention system.

Elizabeth, Kubler Ross describes the phases of separation and loss as D.A.B.D.A, Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, and Acceptance. These phases of heartache can besides be applied to a immature individual being accommodated and will non needfully follow any set order. ( Kubler Ross, 1969 )

It is a immense civilization daze for immature people coming into attention. They have to set to go forthing everything familiar behind and happen their topographic point in a new civilization every bit good as accommodating to a different life manner. This takes clip, and immature people frequently display behaviors that they would non usually utilize, this includes being truly quiet, angry, violent, hostile and submissive before they accept the new surroundings in which they find themselves. ( Velazquez, Lisa 2009 )

Staff in the unit can besides help in a less traumatic passage by helping the immature individual to adorn their sleeping room with postings and personal effects to do them experience more at place. Facilitating contact with parents or callings and guaranting the kid is made to experience welcome in the unit by presenting them to the other occupants and staff.

“ Institutionalism is the syndrome which is now used to depict a set of ill adapted behavior that are induced by the force per unit areas of life in any institutional scene ” . ( McNown, Miriam. Johnson Rhodes, Rita. 2007 )

There is ever a danger of going institutionalized when remaining in attention for extended periods, by seeking to advance a sense of ego and personal individuality within the immature people this is less likely to go on.

If a immature individual is to be secured under subdivision 70 of the Children ( Scotland ) Act 1995 they have no engagement in the designation of a arrangement. The resources available may intend that the kid is placed out with their geographical country. This is an institutional response which is in direct struggle with the rights of the kid ; thought besides needs to be given to statutory demands and the jurisprudence. The National Care Standards for attention describe what each single kid should anticipate from their clip in attention. The criterions are grouped under headers that follow the kid or immature individual ‘s journey through the service. The important 1s in this instance are “ Get downing your stay ” ( criterions 1 to 7 ) . By following these criterions admittance injury can be minimized, and the immature individual will be able to go on to hold a sense of ego and personal individuality.

The values and principals in the Skinner Report ( 1992 ) “ Another Kind of Home ” and the National Care Standards organize the footing of good pattern for the admittance into residential attention. ( Smith, Mark. 2002 )

Forming new fond regards is another country that a immature individual coming into attention can happen debatable.

Angela Oswald ( 2008 ) discussed Uri Bronfenbrenners Ecological Systems Theory, looking at how the kid develops within relationships, and their environment. Basically the quality of input will hold a direct consequence on the quality of end product in the manner the kid behaves. Bronfenbrenner believed that primary relationships need to be long term with person who can supply the feeling of attention that will last a life-time. ( Oswald, Angela. 2008 )

A firmly attached kid, harmonizing to, Mary Ainsworth ‘s, “ Strange Situation ” survey, exhibit hurt when separated from health professionals. ( Ainsworth, Mary. 1970 )

Promoting Resilience within immature people being admitted into residential attention is important. ( Newman 2004, p.77 ) identifies several factors that promote resiliency in adolescence and early maturity, including stable adjustment, and decrease of moves in attention, high self-pride and chances for the immature individual to act upon their environment. This besides helps the immature individual to keep a positive sense of ego.

Edinburgh kids and Families section are now working towards an fond regard advancing theoretical account of attention. This will work in concurrence with anti-oppressive and anti-discriminatory pattern.

“ It is vitally of import that immature people are able to develop their individuality within a positive environment. Therefore, we will non digest any unjust intervention or favoritism of immature people which is based on their age, gender, civilization, race, spiritual patterns or beliefs, sexual orientation or so any other feature of the immature individual that they have a right to keep or show ” . ( Edinburgh Secure Services 2009 )

In 1989, authoritiess worldwide promised all kids the same rights by using the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. These rights allow kids to carry through their possible and are the same for every kid, irrespective of where they are from. ( GIRFEC )

Within the attention puting it is critical that all kids have entree to a kids ‘s rights officer to implement their rights where needed and act as an advocator for the immature people who are looked after by the Children and households Services.

The Care Commission was set up in April 2002 under the Regulation of Care ( Scotland ) Act 2001 to modulate all grownup, kid and independent health care services in Scotland. From 1 April 2011 a new regulative organic structure, Social Care and Social Work Improvement Scotland ( SCSWIS ) , is responsible for modulating societal services. ( National Care Standards )

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Case survey


I work in a close support unit which has up to five immature people ( YP ‘s ) life in it ; each kid has a specific cardinal worker responsible for their attention program. The YP I am traveling to discourse is non my cardinal kid but with which I have had several interactions within a cardinal on the job function every bit good as in my capacity as a residential attention officer. This YP is a 16yr old male child who has been in our attention for the past six months. This YP lived with his male parent in Scotland after go forthing his place state at the age of 8yrs old. He left his female parent and two younger siblings behind and has found it progressively hard to populate with his male parent. The resulting behavior of this have led him to residential attention where it is planned he will remain until he is able to travel on to supported adjustment later this twelvemonth. He has got issues with his wellness, cleanliness and his relationship with his female parent. This YP ‘s cultural background, unwellness and poorness have impacted on the manner he takes attention of his personal hygiene. He has low self-prides but has learned to accommodate, construct resiliency and survive within a new civilization with the attention and aid of the staff squad and other YP ‘s in the unit. ( Edith H. Grotberg, Ph.D. )

The immature people ( YP ‘s ) are assisted to give their suites a thorough clean at least one time a hebdomad. This helps to advance their life accomplishments and self-prides when they have successfully completed the undertaking and acquire congratulations for making so. This intercession occurred during the normal room cleansing activity.


While helping the YP ‘s to dust, vacuity and cod dirty rinsing from room floors, I noticed a strong odor from one of the YP ‘s suites. This was more than a fetid trainer ‘s odor and on helping the YP to garner his dirty lavation and pulling attending to the odor, and the demand to aerate the room, the YP showed me a heap of rinsing hidden in the closet. This was rinsing that had accumulated over several hebdomads and had gone un-noticed by staff. When I asked about why the yp had left all his rinsing for so long he started to discourse his life before he had come into attention. Winnicott ( 1953 ) discussed utilizing a transitional object as a nexus to the female parent. In this instance it seemed to me, the dirty rinsing related to this YP ‘s life with his female parent and the behavior he had learned from her. Due to his willingness to allow me see his dirty vesture I felt he was ready to speak about some of the issues he has. Freud ‘s psychodynamic attack discusses this as nature raising where nature is modified by raising. I recognised the interaction of the YP as holding a concealed significance as described by Aidan Sammons 2011 Psychodynamic Psychology.

This conversation was hard for the YP and he was clearly disquieted, I recognised that this was a crisis state of affairs and felt that I needed to back up the YP through this crisis. This relates to Therapeutic Crisis Intervention ( TCI ) which states “ Its ends are to supply immediate emotional and environmental support in order to cut down emphasis and hazard and to develop get bying schemes ” ( Stanton-Greenwood 2009 )

Group attention is a entire life environment where YP ‘s should hold all their demands met, nevertheless it is of import to retrieve that societal exclusion can besides go on in this scene. ( Lishman 1991, p250 ) After measuring the kineticss within the group at that point and judging it appropriate that I spent some clip with this YP on his ain, I briefly outlined the state of affairs to the other staff on displacement before traveling to pass clip with this YP.

Structures and boundaries within the unit do non ever let for single clip with YP ‘s but in state of affairss of crisis the staff squad will suit by covering the undertakings of the other staff, to ease such intercessions. Tuckman ( 1977 ) discussed how squads go through phases to make a preforming phase. I am lucky that within my displacement squad we have reached this phase and this kind of state of affairs can be facilitated with minimum break to the surroundings of the unit.

Before the YP started to discourse his issues with me I explained that I may hold to go through the information he was discoursing on to other people on a demands to cognize footing. I asked if he would be All right with that, he said it was all right so I was able to sit down beside him on the floor and listen to him as we both emptied his closet of the dirty apparels and set them into rinsing baskets, harmonizing to Judith Brearley ‘s unconscious mental procedures discusses a split between the witting and un-conscious head as a response to mistreat. The YP radius of how he had non been used to holding his rinsing done on a regular basis and his apparels were ever dirty when he stayed with his female parent. He discussed how his female parent was frequently so tired that she would kip with her apparels and places on, and how he and his siblings seldom had clean apparels to have on.

This immature individual had non been used to holding clean apparels hence did non anticipate to hold clean vesture. I knew that self-care and hygiene accomplishments were portion of this YP ‘s attention program aims so was able to work with this YP on his independent life accomplishments, self-care and hygiene by helping him to clean his room. This relates to Bandura ‘s societal acquisition theory, where it is possible for a erudite behavior to be changed by seting a different behavior in its topographic point. Bandura argued that people can larn new behaviors by watching others, this is known as experimental or modeling. ( Bandura 1976 )

I was careful non to look at these undertakings as expected norms but as an chance for development. ( Anglin 2002, p124 ) Gathering the lavation we had found, demoing him how to divide his apparels into hemorrhoids and how to run the lavation machine decently. I was besides able to discourse the values of good personal hygiene while back uping him emotionally and developmentally, I was besides constructing on my relationship with him. ( Anglin, 2002 ) The lavation had become a distraction or transitional object ( Winnicott, 1953 ) for the YP and allowed him to take the focal point from his female parent when it became hard for him to discourse her.

Through consistent observation, patterning and support it will be possible for this immature individual to better his personal hygiene every bit good as his environmental hygiene. This will depend on consistent consciousness by the staff squad and their ability to follow up systematically on the YP ‘s good hygiene wonts. Erik Erikson ‘s Psychosocial Stages of Development speaks about the different phases of development, this YP has non had the of import input at an early age therefore is fighting with being independent and is missing assurance as he has non been taut the particular basic life accomplishments he needs as he grows into a immature adult male.

Once the YP had stopped discoursing his female parent and had moved on to every twenty-four hours treatments I was able to go forth him and inform the following staff squad what had happened. I passed the information of the interaction on to the YP ‘s shadow keyworker as he was on displacement at this point. I besides wrote what I had learned in a elaborate record found in the YP ‘s day-to-day file so that other staff were cognizant of the issues he was holding. Before go forthing the unit I went back to the YP and explained that I had passed on the information to the staff by composing the DR and talking to his shadow worker. He was all right with this and I was able to stop the interaction with the YP on a positive note.


By utilizing the chance led theory I was able to take advantage of the state of affairs of cleaning suites to work on a one to one with this YP as he was in crisis at this point. This combined two interactions chance led and ongoing life infinite intercessions. However on contemplation many intercessions were used. I used the lavation and cleansing as a 3rd object, ( Winnicott ) I used myself as a calming influence so was able to incorporate the crisis. ( TCI ) I was able to beef up my relationship with the YP. ( Anglin ) There are ever things that can be done otherwise or better in any state of affairs and this one is no different. I feel that at the clip I did the best I could in the environment I was in. I was able to back up the YP through the immediate crisis and aided him to happen a manner of showing his emotions in the non-threatening safe country of his sleeping room. If I had gone to another room with him it would hold been more public and could hold caused this YP more hurt. I was non able to follow up on this intercession as I was on vacation for a hebdomad after it but I was able to go through on the relevant information to one of the keyteam to follow up on. While this is non truly a satisfactory stoping to this intercession in my position it is unluckily typical of the manner many staff have to stop such brushs due to switch alteration, vacations and unwellness.

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