The purpose of this essay is to conduct a critical

A critical analysis of four research articles


The intent of this essay is to carry on a critical analysis of four articles which are all concerned with the use of research findings in nursing, and which were all published in theJournal of Advanced Nursing.The essay will be concluded with a synthesis ( Polit et al 2004 ) of the chief findings that emerge from the articles.


The first article by Estabrooks et Al ( 2003 ) is based on the principle that in order to increase the usage of research in nursing, it is necessary to derive an apprehension of what influences research use. The writers conducted a systematic reappraisal of surveies which examined single features of nurses and how these act upon the use of research. Six classs of possible single determiners were found: beliefs and attitudes ; engagement in research activities ; information seeking ; professional features ; instruction and other socio- economic factors. It emerged that apart from attitudes to research, there was small to propose that any possible person determiner influences research usage. The writers attributed this limited determination to methodological jobs within the surveies under reappraisal and recommended that multidisciplinary work should be carried out in this country in order to beef up the organic structure of cognition that is relevant to nursing and related health care subjects.

The geographical context for the literature reappraisal was Canada, which raises the inquiry about how movable the findings are to other states such as the UK ; nevertheless the article was published in a diary which is intended to make an international readership and research issues are progressively going a planetary concern for nurses ( ICN 2007 ) . Nevertheless there may be some fluctuations originating from the analysis of nursing research within different geographical contexts because of differences in the ways that nursing is practiced ( Cormack 2000 ) . The writers clearly described their hunt scheme including mention to exclusion and inclusion standards and provided a elaborate review of the methodological analysis used within the selected articles, placing for illustration that the surveies typically did non let for careful analysis of intercorrelation among variables. This critical attack enabled the writers to measure the restrictions of each survey ( Brink and Wood 2001 ) which in bend led to the designation of recommendations for farther research. This systematic reappraisal is really well- presented and includes tabular arraies which detail which determiners are identified within each article. However the consequences which emerge from the sum of work which clearly went into the systematic reappraisal are let downing in footings of the result and served chiefly to foreground the failings of the bing research, which is unfortunate given that there is an identified demand to go on to advance research mindedness and research- based pattern among nurses ( Gerrish and Lacey 2006 ) .

The 2nd article by McCaughan et Al ( 2002 ) examined acute attention nurses’ perceptual experiences of barriers that prevent them from utilizing research information in clinical decision- devising. On the footing of failings identified in old research such as hapless response rates and trying schemes, the research workers conducted a survey utilizing multiple methods affecting 108 nurse participants from three acute infirmaries. Four countries were identified that relate to barriers that prevent nurses from utilizing research findings to inform decision- devising: research findings being perceived as being excessively complex and hence hard to construe ; deficiency of organizational support ; research findings being perceived as missing clinical credibleness and clinical way and deficiency of cognition and motive to enable nurses to implement research findings. The research workers concluded that the manner that research is presented and managed within the workplace should be addressed by clinicians, policy shapers and the research community.

This is a really relevant survey that addresses the nursing research- pattern duality that persists within the UK ( Mulhall 2001 ; Seymour et al 2003 ; Maben et Al 2006 ) . The usage of multiple methods which in this instance included qualitative interviews, observation and documental audit is described as triangulation. The advantage of utilizing methodological triangulation is that it helps to decide the restrictions that individual methods have in analyzing the complexness of a state of affairs ( Kendall 2005 ) . The research workers besides used Q methodological analysis which is used to uncover the subjectiveness of a state of affairs ( Brown 1996 ) . While the usage of this method is justifiable, it is besides rather complex which is arguably, self-contradictory in the visible radiation of the sensed barriers to utilizing research findings cited within this survey, which include research findings being excessively complex and hard to construe. The research workers acknowledged that the findings might non be generalisable to other scenes.

The 3rd article by Parahoo ( 2000 ) reports a survey which surveyed nurses’ perceptual experiences of barriers to, and facilitators of, research use. 1369 nurses ( a response rate of 52.6 % ) from 23 infirmaries in Northern Ireland completed the Barriers Scale questionnaire. The most often happening barrier was that ‘The nurse does non experience she/he has adequate authorization to alter patient procedures’ followed by ‘statistical analyses are non understandable’ . The research workers concluded that schemes to turn to the issues identified could be grouped into two chief classs ; ‘setting- specific’ ( for illustration in relation to entree to research and research installations ) and ‘profession- related’ ( for illustration relating to deficiency of liberty, research cognition and accomplishments )

The usage of tried- and- tested research instruments ( in this case the Barriers Scale ) helps to guarantee cogency and dependability of the findings. This is because published research tools have frequently been refined several times ( Giles 2002 ) . As the research worker points out, the usage of this graduated table enabled comparings to be made with the findings of similar surveies conducted within other scenes. The research worker identifies that there were a high degree of ‘no opinion’ responses which could hold affected the overall ranking of barriers. Harmonizing to Breakwell ( 2006 ) there is small grounds that leting the respondents a ‘no opinion’ option within ranking scale questionnaires, improves the quality of the information ; that some respondents will utilize this option because of such factors as deficiency of motive or clip force per unit areas. Overall nevertheless, the findings of this survey add to the organic structure of cognition in relation to the use of research findings in nursing.

The concluding article by Veeramah ( 2004 ) reports a survey which assessed the impact of research instruction on attitudes towards research and the usage of research findings in pattern by alumnus nurses and accoucheuses. A cross- sectional study utilizing a self- competed postal questionnaire was conducted with a sample of 340 nurse and accoucheuse alumnuss from one university in the South East of England. A response rate of 51 % was gained. A big figure of the respondents reported that their critical assessment and hunt accomplishments had improved since graduating. 16.8 % stated that they used research findings in pattern all of the clip ; 50.5 % often and 32.6 % sometimes. Most respondents expressed positive attitudes towards research and that these were related to the research instruction they had received. Some barriers to the usage of research findings in pattern were identified ; for illustration happening statistics hard to understand, deficiency of clip to read research and limited entree to research findings at work. The research worker concluded that if evidence- based pattern is to go a world, so it is important that the barriers to research use must be addressed at both single and organizational degrees.

A possible restriction of this survey as indicated by the research worker is that it employed a self- coverage method. Potential restrictions of self- coverage questionnaires have been identified as the effects of societal desirableness and callback, losing or inconsistent informations and misunderstood instructions with no chance for elucidation ( King et al 2003 ) . The findings could besides hold been affected by the fact that one university was used in this survey ; merely reflecting hence, the research instruction within a individual scene. This survey highlights the impact of instruction on research in nursing ; this is identified elsewhere as a cardinal factor in advancing the use of research findings within nursing pattern ( Buswell et al 2003 ) .


All four surveies were concerned with the use of research findings within nursing pattern. Key findings from these surveies are as follows:

  • Nurses perceive research findings as being hard to understand
  • Nurses perceive that they lack the necessity cognition, accomplishments and assurance to implement research findings
  • Nurses perceive that they lack the needed liberty and authorization to do the alterations that would be associated with the use of research findings.
  • Nurses perceive that they do non hold adequate clip to implement research findings


The four surveies reviewed, all address the go oning research- pattern duality that exists within nursing in the UK and elsewhere. The world is that nurses working in busy clinical countries perceive several barriers to the execution of research findings, such as clip restraints and deficiency of cognition and assurance. We need to research originative ways of doing research findings more accessible to nurses such as showing sum-ups of complex research documents in the popular nursing imperativeness ; enabling more nurses to entree formal research instruction and organizing informal activities locally, such as journal nines ; sum-ups of research findings presented as postings ; research seminars and workshops ( Brockopp and Hastings- Tolsma 2002 ) .

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