The International Food Safety Management Standard, ISO 22000, was developed in response to a demand for a world-wide criterion supported by an independent, international organisation, which would promote harmonisation of national and private criterions for nutrient safety direction. The standard defines nutrient safety as the construct that groceries should non be harmful to the consumer and recognizes that nutrient safety jeopardies can be introduced at any phase of the nutrient concatenation.
The criterion would be applicable at all phases of the supply concatenation. Acknowledging that nutrient safety jobs can arise at any point in the supply concatenation, the criterion requires that the organisation in the nutrient concatenation take into history the safety jeopardies of the concluding nutrient merchandise of the concatenation to the consumer and, if necessary, take steps to command those jeopardies. The criterion would besides supply for systematic communicating and information exchange between all parties in the concatenation, so as to advance apprehension of the hazards at any peculiar phase for the concatenation as a whole.
An international by and large accepted ISO criterion that integrated the necessary nutrient safety rules with recognized quality direction rules would besides advance consensus in make up one’s minding on the necessary elements of nutrient safety systems for concerns in the nutrient concatenation. Last, it would besides be aligned with ISO 9001 in order to heighten compatibility with bing overall direction attacks in the nutrient concerns concerned.
1.2 Research Objective
Based on the foregoing advantages, it was good to direct the purpose of this research towards look intoing the importance of ISO 22000 ( FSMS ) nutrient safety direction system execution in Egyptian organisations and to measure its effectivity.
1.3 Research Importance
There are legion pressing challenges in the country of nutrient safety and now is the clip for alteration. The acknowledgment of the jobs has spurred a new moving ridge of solutions. However, these solutions will non be realized without active support from all parts of the nutrient production and ingestion concatenation. There is an pressing demand for more systematic and aggressive stairss to be taken to significantly cut down the hazard of microbiological and chemical nutrient borne diseases. This demand must non be ignored ( M. Elmi, 2004 ) . Undertaking the issues of nutrient safety is without doubt one of the major challenges for the twenty-first century with respect to the protection of human wellness. Therefore it ‘s really pressing to set up a robust nutrient safety direction system to be an effectual tool in contending nutrient born and nutrient safety issues.
1.4 Research Problem
Due to the research literature through scientific diaries, magazines, studies and articles the research worker observes the followerss:
Implementing ( FSMS ) nutrient safety direction system for Small and Medium Enterprises ( SMEi??s ) in Egypt may confront the undermentioned obstructions:
1. Weak direction committedness.
2. Deficit of allocated resources for execution.
3. Complicated certification and paper work used in FSMS executions.
4. Poor be aftering for activities related to FSMS.
1.5 Research Hypothesis
There is a direct relation between effectual nutrient safety direction continual betterment and the followers:
1- Documentation and general direction demand.
2- Management duty.
3- Resources direction.
4- Planning and realisation of safe merchandises.
1.6 Research Questions
1- Does the organisation certification system and general direction demands heighten effectual execution and FSMS betterment?
2- Does organisation exceed direction show their committedness to FSMS demand for effectual executions?
3- Does the handiness of equal resources affect nutrient safety direction system public presentation?
4- Does the effectual planning and realisation of safe merchandise lead to effectual FSMS execution?
1.7 Research Scope
The range of this research is bounded by a instance survey in Dreem Company which has been characterized by the execution of FSMS nutrient safety direction system ISO 22000.
1.8 Research Methodology
Quantitative research is by and large made utilizing scientific methods, which can include: ( Hunter et al. , 2008 )
– The coevals of theoretical accounts, theories and hypotheses.
– The development of instruments and methods for measuring.
– Experimental control and use of variables.
– Collection of empirical informations.
– Mold and analysis of informations.
– Evaluation of consequences.
In this research, quantitative refers to the systematic empirical probe of quantitative belongingss and relationships. The aim of this research is to develop and use hypotheses. The procedure of measuring is cardinal to quantitative research because it provides the cardinal connexion between empirical observation and mathematical look of quantitative relationships.
1.9 Research Population and Sample
Research explores one of the nutrient processing SMEi??s in the nutrient fabrication sector in Alexandria ; i??Burg al Arab regioni?? , specifically, first industrial part. Research schemes were built and so developed likewise to the field of nutrient processing.
1.10 Research Tools
The informations assemblage techniques used for executing that research were:
1. Previous Studies,
1.11 Thesis Outline
Chapter One: Introduction
This chapter is dedicated to summing up the whole research contents ; get downing by research debut, aims, the importance of it and how it affects the organisation. Besides the chapter explores the research hypothesis, inquiries, methodological analysis used, the underlined population and sample, the tools used, the construction of chapters followed to present that research.
Chapter Tow: Literature Reappraisal
The chapter is dedicated to research debut about the i??FSMSi?? construct and combinations, the development of ( FSMS ) nutrient safety direction systems and its of import function in bring forthing safe nutrient, ( FSMS ) executions, factors impacting ( FSMS ) executions, and a drumhead about the literature findings.
Chapter Three: Food Safety Management System ISO 22000 ( FSMS )
The chapter is used to present FSMS footings and definitions, definitions of nutrient safety, ( FSMS ) constructs, HACCP and ISO 9000, HACCP versus ISO 22000, ISO 22000 advantages and ISO 22000 applications.
Chapter Four: Food Safety Management System ISO 22000 Implementation in Food Processing Company “ Dreem ”
The chapter is dedicated to show the instance survey used in this research, which is the execution of FSMS nutrient safety direction system utilizing the ISO 22000 criterion in a taking Egyptian nutrient processing company Dreem Company for instant soft drinks and bread humanitarians. The chapter presents the history of Dreem Company, give a brief cognition about the execution of ISO 22000 criterion demands in Dreem and discourse the jobs that faced the execution of ( FSMS ) in Dreem.
Chapter Five: Statistical Analysis of Questionnaire Data
This chapter addresses the analysis of the collected informations and discusses the penetrations gained from the analysis.
Chapter Six: Decisions and Recommendations
The chapter is used to show a sum-up of decisions conducted from the research work and offers recommendations for future work.
2- Literature Review
The ISO 22000 Standard Procedures for Food Safety Management can assist you rapidly make a ( FSMS ) Food Safety Management System that ensures your company ‘s conformity with the demands established by the ISO 22000:2005 Standard. This of import resource is exhaustively researched and reviewed by experts in the field, and it includes processs and signifiers for nutrient safety plan constituents such as HACCP ( Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point ) Plans, Supplier Evaluations, Manufacturing, Traceability, Monitoring/Measurement, Internal Auditing, and Product Recall. Food safety is a turning concern worldwide. Organizations of all sizes and all along the nutrient supply concatenation face increasing ordinances and consumer concerns. Puting a practical and functional Food Safety Management System into topographic point is critical in order to show the ability to command nutrient safety jeopardies and guarantee that merchandises are safe for human ingestion. In add-on to the needed ISO 22000 and HACCP processs and signifiers, the ISO 22000 Standard Procedures for Food Safety Management provides an enlightening debut to nutrient safety direction, an account of the ISO2200 Standard, and a sample Food Safety Manual. Making the needed certification can be a hard and clip devouring portion of making a Food Safety Management System. Fortunately there is no demand to get down from abrasion.
Much has been written about how quality should be managed in an organisation. The quality literature contains many instance surveies of successful companies and descriptions of quality constructs and quality betterment plans. To day of the month, nevertheless, there has been no systematic effort to form and synthesise the assorted prescriptions offered, nor have steps of organisational quality direction been proposed for countries such as top direction leading, preparation, employee engagement, and supplier direction. While many organisations collect quality informations such as defect rates, mistake rates, rework cost, and bit cost, these are non steps of organization-wide quality direction.
Oakland ( 1995 ) gives a general definition of Critical Factors ( CFs ) that influence an organizational or a direction system in concern environment. He defines CFs as the critical countries that an organisation should carefully analyze and categorise their impacts on the system every bit good as on the whole organisation, in order to successfully pull off them and accomplish the effectual execution of the system and the organizationi??s mission. Therefore, the CFs of an effectual HACCP system can be viewed as those factors that should efficaciously be managed in order to guarantee the systemi??s successful execution and accordingly nutrient safety. Harmonizing to the literature there are legion CFs that have been identified as being important to The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point ( HACCP ) .
During the last three decennaries, Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point ( HACCP ) has been increasingly introduced and applied for the benefit of the nutrient industry. However, it should be recognized that HACCP systems have non been homogeneously implemented across all nutrient industry sectors. Reasons for non implementing, keeping and updating HACCP plans can non be explained strictly in footings of involuntariness by makers but instead by the presence of proficient barriers that may hinder the application of the system. Technical barriers represent all those patterns, attitudes and perceptual experiences that negatively affect the apprehension of the HACCP construct and therefore the proper and effectual execution and care of the HACCP rules. This paper describes the possible barriers that may hinder the right usage of HACCP before it has been implemented, during the procedure of execution and after it has been implemented. Until barriers hindering HACCP have been resolved, HACCP systems will non be implemented throughout the whole nutrient concatenation and it will non be able to make its full potency as requirement for the international trade of groceries.
Ehiri et Al. ( 1995 ) conducted an empirical survey in the nutrient safety direction country analysing the HACCP CFs in SMEs ( Small and Medium Enterprise ) . They found that factors such as deficient cognition and resources are obstructions that should be overcome for the effectual execution of HACCP. Small and/or less developed concerns are non ever holding the resources and the necessary expertness on site for the development and execution of an effectual HACCP program ( CAC, 2001 ) . Taylor ( 2001 ) and Walker et Al. ( 2003 ) identified barriers of the effectual execution of HACCP in little concerns such as the deficiency of expertness, absence of legal demands and fiscal restraints. Bertolini et Al. ( 2007 ) besides recognized that the practical application of HACCP in SMEs can be hindered by factors such as the deficiency of clip, expertness, preparation, motive, committedness and support. Mortimore and Wallace ( 1996 ) concluded that a major job, peculiarly in little concerns, is the ability to derive entree to allow expertness. Therefore, they suggested the HACCP system to be developed, verified and maintained by experts. Yapp and Fairman ( 2006 ) besides identified the barriers impacting nutrient safety conformity within SMEs such as the clip and money, deficiency of trust in nutrient safety statute law, deficiency of motive in covering with nutrient safety statute law and the deficiency of cognition and apprehension of the system. Bas et Al. ( 2007 ) and Strohbehn et Al. ( 2004 ) see that a major job sing the effectual execution of HACCP in nutrient SMEs is employeesi?? credence and direction of prerequisite plans ( PRPs ) . For those organisations that consider HACCP as the charming expression for pull offing non-conformities with regard to hapless personal hygiene, unsuitable installation design and unequal cleansing plans, the consequence is the analysis of the critical control points ( CCPs ) before pull offing the requirements ( PRs ) efficaciously. In such a instance, the HACCP system lacks the PRs-foundation and consequences in a short-run solution. These prerequisite plans, including preparation, should be good established and verified in order to ease the successful execution of the HACCP system ( CAC, 2001 ) . Taylor ( 2001 ) noted that even a big nutrient company, with fiscal resources and expertness, might confront important hurdlings in developing a successful HACCP system. Therefore, little and average sized companies seeking to implement HACCP might confront unsurmountable issues, endangering the efficiency and the effectivity of the systemi??s execution. For all types of nutrient concerns, direction consciousness and committedness is necessary for the execution of an effectual HACCP system. The effectivity of the HACCP system will besides trust upon direction and employees holding the appropriate cognition and accomplishments ( CAC, 2001 ) . Maning and Baines ( 2004 ) besides stated that a nutrient safety direction system is every bit effectual as the accomplishments and cognition of the squad development and implementing it are adequately developed. A weak analysis of the possible jeopardies because of unequal accomplishments and cognition leads to ineffective nutrient safety direction. So, preparation is considered as a cardinal constituent of the effectual nutrient safety direction ( WHO, 1999 ) . Training of industry forces every bit good as governmental opposite numbers and faculty members, with respect to HACCP rules and application are indispensable elements for the effectual execution of this system ( Satin, 2002 ) . Griffith ( 2000 ) stated that one of the major jobs sing the effectual execution of HACCP is that employees in nutrient industry frequently lack involvement and they frequently have a negative attitude toward the nutrient safety plans. Taylor and Taylor ( 2004 ) found that the chief barriers that hindered the effectual HACCP execution were due to HACCP being considered as hard, onerous and unneeded. They explained that the interplay of barriers at cognition, attitude and behavioural degrees could account for the jobs in effectual HACCP execution. Gilling et Al. ( 2001 ) carried out a study taking at placing the jobs that hinder the attachment to the internationally acclaimed HACCP guidelines. Their survey revealed that there was a complex scope of cognition, attitude and behavior-related hindrances that hampered the conformity to this set of guidelines. Bas et Al. ( 2007 ) besides stated that, besides cognition, i??attitudei?? is an of import factor that ensures a downward tendency of nutrient borne unwellnesss. Eves and Dervisi ( 2005 ) noted that when HACCP is non decently implemented it is due to time-related restraints and largely due to the big sum of certification required. Bas et Al. ( 2007 ) and Panisello and Quantick ( 2001 ) stated that the volume of the paperwork required is a factor that hinders the HACCP effectivity, while Taylor and Kane ( 2005 ) and Taylor ( 2001 ) refer to troubles or deficiency of proof and confirmation processs. Aggelo giannopoulos et Al. ( 2007 ) besides mentioned some other internal barriers in implementing the quality system such as the deficiency of fiscal resources, deficiency of forces, human resource restrictions ( deficient accomplishments or makings ) , clip limitations because of the short operating skyline of the concern, opposition of higher-level executives to alter and opposition of employees to alter. Adams ( 2000 ) , Ward ( 2001 ) , Panisello et Al. ( 1999 ) and Griffith ( 2000 ) analyzing the nutrient industry identified some major jobs in implementing an effectual nutrient safety system such as preparation jobs, high staff turnover and the big figure of parttime employees.
Harmonizing to Luning et Al. ( 2008 ) , a factor that influences the effectual execution of HACCP is authorities. Government is a rather dominant factor with a strong power place and clear involvement in nutrient safety. It influences nutrient quality either via regulations and processs or via review. Vela and Fernandez ( 2003 ) besides claimed that nutrient advisers are non ever experts in HACCP and as a consequence of cognition shown, sometimes their advice is inappropriate. Consequently, unequal information prevents nutrient companies from implementing HACCP efficaciously. Jin et Al. ( 2008 ) noted that spread outing foreign market is a important factor in implementing HACCP system efficaciously.
HACCP per Se does non do safe nutrient, but its correct and effectual application can do the difference. In order for this to be achieved, the barriers of implementing HACCP should be assessed and their impact evaluated ( Eves and Dervisi, 2005 ) .Taylor and Kane ( 2005 ) noted that there is a demand to place the specific hurdlings that companies face at each measure of the HACCP procedure and to develop successful intercession schemes. Until these barriers be resolved, HACCP system will non be efficaciously implemented throughout the whole nutrient concatenation and it will non be able to make its full potency as requirement for the international trade of groceries ( Paniselloand Quantick, 2001 ; Eves and Dervisi, 2005 ) . Future nutrient quality direction researches and analyses should hence be focused on measuring, quantifying and patterning those technological and managerial factors that contribute to nutrient quality, on the dynamic behaviour of these factors, and on how this behaviour can be conditioned ( Luning and Marcelis, 2007 ) . Luning et Al. ( 2008 ) besides stated that quantitative surveies should be carried out in different nutrient sectors in order to acquire more in-depth and specific penetration in the major factors act uponing the effectivity of nutrient safety direction systems