Social Workers work with some of the most deprived and vulnerable people in Society, those who have been perchance subjected to subjugation in their day-to-day lives. ‘Most would hold that Social Work is a diverse and switching activity ‘ ( Jones 2002’41 ) in response to the state of affairss presented within society. The society that we live in can be seen as one with many divisions, due to single difference, people are categorised in due to these differences such as gender, race, category, age and disablement. These Social Divisions can ensue in certain groups being oppressed.
Barker ( 2003’306-307 ) defines subjugation as
‘The societal act of puting terrible limitations on an person, group or establishment. Typically a authorities or political administration that is in power topographic points these limitations officially or covertly on laden groups so that they may be exploited and less able to vie with other societal groups, the oppressed are devalued exploited and deprived of privileges by the person or group that has more power. ‘
Oppression can be to the full understood through attending to ‘race, ‘ gender, category, disablement, gender and age. Society can impute to these differences by specifying people and their functions based on their different experiences in relation to the power, position and chances in society.
Northern Ireland is seen as a multi-cultural society with dwellers from many different backgrounds and civilizations. The functions and outlooks that society assumes for different group of people is immersed on a cultural degree, therefore making common values about what is ‘normal ‘ which creates perceptual experiences of societal norms. Through these perceptual experiences of ‘social norms ‘ subjugation comes to the head.
Recuring favoritism leads to subjugation. Thompson ( 1998’10 ) says this is: “ inhuman or degrading intervention of persons or groups ; adversity and unfairness brought approximately by the laterality of one group over another, the negative and demanding exercising of power. Oppression frequently involves ignoring the rights of an single or group and is a denial of citizenship. ”
It is of import that it is recognise that subjugation is non intended entirely to mention to state of affairss where a powerful individual or group exerts tyranny over others it besides refers to the structural unfairnesss that can originate from frequently unwilled oppressive premises and interactions which occur as a consequence of institutional and societal imposts, economic patterns and regulations. ( Clifford and Burke 2009 )
For the intent of this assignment I am traveling to concentrate on racism and the subjugation faced by Travellers as an cultural minority group. Travelers are an autochthonal minority in Ireland and bask a typical civilization, value system and common linguistic communication. ( O’Connell, 2006:4 )
Travelers ‘ mobile life style follows a everyday based on economic patterns and faith. Harmonizing to the Government, Travellers “ have shared histories, a mobile manner of life and distinguishable cultural individuality ” ( Department of Justice 2005 ; Cited by O’Connell 2006’4 )
One noteworthy characteristic about the discourse of Travellers is the inclination to tie in traveler subjugation with the footings ‘discrimination ‘ and ‘prejudice ‘ and non racism, a inclination which is brooding of a broader opposition among some members of the Irish populace and some policymakers and politicians to calling the intervention of travelers as racialist. ( Exchange House Travellers Service, 2005, www.exchangehouse.ie ) ( accessed 14/10/10 )
The failure to admit traveler subjugation as racism may be stemming from failure to admit travelers as a distinguishable cultural group. ‘While travelers are visually racialised in society by their normandism, they were besides marked through their physical, non structural whiteness. This failure to tie in the marginalization of travelers in Irish Society with racism supports a false apprehension of racism as refering entirely or chiefly to people of coloring material ‘ ( Downes & A ; Gilligan 2007’249 ) despite definitions such as Burke and Harrison ‘s ( 2000 ‘ 283 ) who believe:
‘racism is a multidimensional and complex system of power and impotence, a procedure in which powerful groups are able to rule, which can be seen in the differential results for less powerful groups in accessing services in the wellness and public assistance, instruction, lodging and the legal and condemnable justness systems. ‘
This impression of ‘power ‘ can show the segregations in society, and can rise the subjugation faced by those of cultural minority groups.
‘The development of racial political orientation does non reflect the province of cognition about racial differences but an facet of societal struggle. ‘ ( Ely and Denny 1987’4 ) Racism is a negative term with negative intensions and can be seen as a socially constructed political orientation instead than a biological entity. ( Thompson 2006 ) The impact of racism on cultural minority groups can be damaging, it can put many restraint on the lives of the persons such as being restricted in what services they can avail of, the deficiency of cognition about the commissariats and chances available to them. ‘Racism amendss those it oppresses socially, economically and politically. ‘ ( Dominelli 2008’65 )
Thompson ( 1993, p19 ) states that:
“ Phosphorus refers to the personal or psychological ; it is the single degree ideas, feelings, attitudes and actions. It besides refers to pattern, single workers interacting with single clients, and bias, the inflexibleness of head, which stands in the manner of just and non – judgmental pattern.
C refers to the cultural degree of shared ways of visual perception, believing and making. It relates to the commonalties, values and forms of idea and behavior, an false consensus about what is right and what is normal ; It produces conformance to societal norms, and amusing temper Acts of the Apostless as a vehicle for conveying and reenforcing this civilization.
S refers to the structural degree, the web of societal divisions ; it relates to the ways in which subjugation and favoritism are institutionalised and therefore ‘sewn in ‘ to the cloth of society. It denotes the wider degree of societal forces, the socio-political dimension of meshing forms of power and influence.
At the Personal Level Travellers can be seen to be oppressed in many ways, the feelings that Travelers are soiled, condemnable
As a minority group, Travellers suffer favoritism and subjugation ; they are marginalised and excluded by people of the ‘settled community. ‘ Poverty is seen to be portion of day-to-day life within the going community and many of the ‘settled ‘ community feel that it is due to their Normandic manner of life and that it could be solved by settling down and acquiring a occupation. ( De Burca & A ; Jeffers 1999 ; Cited in Downes & A ; Gilligan, 2007:249 )
Rather than offering a structural account for traveler poorness, or an apprehension of these experiences from the travelers ‘ point of position, the positions and readings of the dominant cultural group are normally imposed on travelers. ( Downes & A ; Gilligan 2007 ) However the subjugation faced by travelers can non be seen merely from a personal point of position, it needs to be viewed in a broader context. Racism manifests itself in many different ways in society. Homer thompsons ( 2006 ) PCS theoretical account provides an apprehension to how racism des so ; it can be seen to run at three different degrees, the personal, cultural and structural. Clifford and Burke ( 2009’18 ) believe that ‘Oppression operates at both structural and personal degrees at the same clip. ‘
Since the formation of the Welfare State many alterations have come about which have resulted in positive actions in trying to dispute racism and the subjugation faced by people in Society. Social Policy plays an of import portion in advancing integrating in society. ‘One of the maps of the Welfare proviso in general, is to advance the integrating of persons in society. ‘ ( Oliver 1996’78 ) These policies may be interpreted as responses to comprehend societal demands. The policies evolve within an environment where jobs come to the heads that are seen to necessitate political solutions and force per unit areas occur for new political responses. ( Hill 2009 )
Social Work pattern is transforming through the creative activity of societal dealingss, furthering equality and justness in traveling toward an anti- racialist attack, a political stance against racism is adopted on the personal, institutional and cultural degrees within policies, pattern, instruction and Social Work administrations. ( Dominelli, 2008 )
O’Connell ( 2006’5 ) provinces that ‘Travellers have been victims of force and bullying and have been capable to exclusion from services, giving rise to many instances under the Equal Status Act. ‘ This Act covers favoritism on the evidences of gender, race, age, matrimonial position, household position, faith, sexual orientation, disablement and rank of the Traveller Community. ‘Deconstructing power dealingss and favoring within professional relationships can get down the procedures of altering professional and organizational constructions. ‘ Dominelli ( 2008:77 )
The Traveller Education scheme ( 2006 ) seeks an terminal to divide Traveller proviso in instruction to be replaced by inclusive proviso in chief watercourse services.
The demand to esteem Travellers ‘ rights is a logical component of the new human rights and equality architecture established since 1998: the creative activity of an Equality Authority to advance equality, an Equality Tribunal to hear favoritism instances, the National Consultative Committee on Racism and Interculturalism ( NCCRI ) to give adept advice on these issues, and the Irish Human Rights Commission ( IHRC ) to advance human rights. Ireland has adopted new anti-discrimination statute law ( 1998 Employment Equality Act and 2000 Equal Status Act ) , and most late the State has announced a National Action Plan against Racism ( Department of Justice 2005 ) .
Anti-racist enterprises are reflected in Social Work instruction and pattern, many Social work administrations engaged with what is known as Race Awareness Training. These inaugural mark Social Work instruction every bit good as service bringing. CCETSW implemented an anti racialist policy which was aimed at looking at ways to educate pupil and practicians of anti-racist patterns. ( Llewellyn 2008 )