The Frequency Of Drug Abuse Criminology Essay

Introduction:

Drug policies in any state relate to both work forces and adult females and vary from state to state. The United States drug policy began criminalisation on usage of drugs in the twenty-first century. Here, the United States position was that drug dependence was the offense and prohibited the usage of illegal drugs. Canada our neighbouring state has a drug policy that is directed to the lessening of wellness, economic and societal effects of drug maltreatment.

This comparative study will discourse several issues such as: the frequence of drug maltreatment in relation to incarceration rates between the United States and Canada, the cost of drugs in the United States vs. Canada, the happening of offense associated with drug maltreatment, this study will besides travel over the criminalisation theoretical account every bit good as the injury decrease theoretical account and drug control policies in the United States and Canada.

The Frequency of drug maltreatment in the United States: Captivity Ratess

Mauer & A ; King ( 2007 ) stated that drug apprehensions have tripped in the last 20 five old ages, traveling from 581,000 drug related apprehensions in 1980 to 1,846,351 drug related apprehensions in 2005. As these drug related rates increased ten-fold from 1980 and 2000 this has besides brought on the addition in figure of drug related discourtesies in province and federal establishments. ( Boyum & A ; Reuter, 2005 ; Bewley-Taylor, Hallam, & A ; Allen, 2009 ) .

The Frequency of drug maltreatment in Canada: Captivity Ratess

Although the quickly increasing drug related rates seem high in the United States ; Canada nevertheless is known to hold the highest sum of drug related users per capita over any other state ( Bewley-Taylor et al. , 2009 ) . Even though Canada has more drug related users the per centum of drug related wrongdoers held in prisons are a batch lower than the United States. Riley ( 1998 ) states that there are about 1,200 inmates in Canadian federal prisons functioning more than two old ages for drug related discourtesies.

However in 2006 Canada had 909 adult females drug wrongdoers 44 % ( 401 ) were incarcerated for drug related offenses, where 56 % ( 508 ) were held on conditional release ( Correctional Service of Canada Drug Policy in the United States and Canada, 2006 ) .

Motiuk & A ; Vuong ( 2002 ) stated as of 2001 94.1 % of all drug related offense wrongdoers were work forces whereas adult females drug related wrongdoers was merely 5.9 % . Drug related captivity rates are notable indexs in relation to drug maltreatment.

The cost of drugs in the United States:

The Office of National Drug Control Policy states that the cost of drug maltreatment in the United States estimated at around $ 180.9 billion dollars in 2002. This cost corresponds to the resources needed to take in manus the effects of wellness and offense. This figure besides pertains to loss of employment, disablement, and decease. This analysis shows that drug related maltreatment has augmented on norm of about 5.3 % each twelvemonth from 1992 through 2002.

This analysis besides shows that drug related costs pertained to the condemnable justness attempts put away, particularly in dealingss to captivity rates due to drug related discourtesies and jurisprudence enforcement costs and adjudication.

This analysis besides pertains to the addition amounts that are related to bar, intervention and wellness effects ( ONDCP, 2001 ) .

The cost of drugs in Canada:

The Canadian Centre for Substance Abuse published a study on the costs of substance maltreatment in Canada in 2002. This study covers the effects of baccy, intoxicant, and illegal drugs in dealingss o decease, unwellness, and costs in 2002.

What this study uncovered was that the usage of illegal drugs puts non merely an economic strain on Canada, but a widely impacts the costs in dealingss to wellness attention and condemnable justness, along with the indirect fees on disablement and decease due to drug related issues.

Rehm et Al. ( 2006 ) stated that the entire one-year cost of drug maltreatment in Canada was $ 39.8 billion in Canadian money, which totals out to a cost of $ 1,267 to each Canadian.

The study besides goes into farther item discoursing that illegal drugs made up 20.7 % of the entire cost of drug maltreatment ; ( 79.3 % ) and that these illegal drugs add up to $ 8.2 billion ( 20.7 % ) .

Finally, the study goes farther into item and discusses the cost of drug maltreatment is high in relation to personal and societal issues between adult females and work forces in the United States and Canada in the twenty-first century. Overall these costs are basically different between the populations where the United States has 305 Million people vs. Canada with 33 million.

The Occurrence of Crime and Drug Abuse in the United States

Crime and drugs have ever gone manus in manus with one another ; this is peculiarly true for the Unites States in 2004 with approximately 17 % of province wrongdoers and 18 % of federal wrongdoers who are functioning clip for perpetrating discourtesies such as selling drugs for money.

The per centum in 2004 is an addition from 1997 for federal wrongdoers ( 16 % ) ; nevertheless for province wrongdoers this per centum has decreased since 1997 ( 19 % ) ( Bureau of Justice Statistics [ BJS ] , 2004 ) .

With the usage of The Uniform Crime Reporting Program conducted by the Federal Bureau of Investigation ( FBI ) it has been reported in 2006 that out of 15000 homicides 5.3 % of them had some type of drug relation linked to the homicide. The National Crime Victimization Survey reported that in 2005, 5.2 million victims ages 12 or older reported some type of offense committed against them in which the wrongdoer was on some type of drug. Out of these victims who reported offenses against them they were asked if the wrongdoer was utilizing or on some type of drug or if the wrongdoer had been or was imbibing. The consequences of this study given to these victims were that 27 % reported that the wrongdoer was on some type of drug ( s ) ( BJS, 2006 ) .

The Bureau of Justice Statistics reported that in 2002 29 % of convicted wrongdoers functioning sentences in gaol admitted that at the clip of their discourtesy they were under the influence of an illegal drug ( s ) which is a 6 % lessening from 1996. Adding to this study, those inmates who were functioning clip in gaol for robbery, burglary, motor vehicle larceny, or arms misdemeanor reported that they were under the influence of an illegal drug ( s ) at the clip of their discourtesy. Furthermore, Cocaine, cleft, and marihuanas were the drug ( s ) these inmates reported being under the influence of at the clip of their discourtesy ( BJS, 2002 ) .

Since 2006, the grownup correctional population and captivity community increased to 7.2 million and by the terminal of 2006 there were 1 in every 31 grownups incarcerated on word or probation due to a drug related discourtesy ( Glaze & A ; Bonczar, 2007 ) .

Reports besides show that adult females who are incarcerated at the province and federal degree has increased more than eight times since 1980 traveling from 12,300 to 182,271 in 2002.

From 1986 to 1999 this figure increased by 888 % in province prisons, which exceeded all work forces who were sentenced for a drug related discourtesy.

More than one million adult females are on probation, word, in gaol, or are functioning clip in province or federal prisons sing some type of drug related discourtesy ( Bloom, ( 1993 ) .

However, work forces still rank higher than adult females in prisons that are sentences for some type of drug discourtesy but this spread is going smaller. With 40 % of adult females being convicted of drug discourtesies and the figure of admitted female wrongdoers lifting in province and federal prisons is on the rise ( Harrison, Allen & A ; Beck, 2005 ) .

In add-on, more adult females are being served more lifetime sentences for drug related discourtesies traveling from 0.3 % in 1974 to 1.8 % in 2001 ( BJS, 2004 ) .

The Occurrence of Crime and Drug Abuse In Canada

Canada ‘s drug related offense is besides on the rise with offense discourtesies related to drug ( s ) increasing 42 % since 1990 seting this rate at a 20 twelvemonth record high. Marijuana is the cause of 72 % which works out to be 3 out 4 drug related discourtesies committed ; this besides puts production and the import of marihuana discourtesies at a record high as good. Marijuana offenses in general have besides increased from the 1990s to 2002 by 80 % which many of these discourtesies were related to holding ownership of marihuana.

Merely like that in the United States Cocaine is besides at a high rate in Canada ; with 60 % of all homicide wrongdoers holding cocaine in their system at the clip of the discourtesy ( Statistics Canada, 2004 ) .

Domestic Drug Policies: The Criminalization Model & A ; The Harm Reduction Model

Decreasing the drug related discourtesies in both the United States and Canada are achieved by utilizing diverse theoretical accounts. The United States uses a criminalisation theoretical account which prohibits the usage of illegal drugs all together. In Canada, the injury decrease theoretical account is utilized to diminish the results of drug related issues ; such as wellness, economic significance, every bit good as societal effects.

The criminalisation theoretical account used in the United States requires an in-depth sum of strong enforcement to be instilled, which is the focal point used for this theoretical account to work ( Boyum & A ; Reuter, 2005 ) . This farther entails that every jurisprudence put into topographic point against illegal drugs will be enforced upon. Wrongdoers who are in ownership of or who have an purpose to sell are charged, normally with this charge comes with a all right and can besides hold the wrongdoer incarcerated for perpetrating a drug offenses ( Haden, 2002 ) .

Canada on the other manus utilizes the injury decrease theoretical account which was established in 1987 ( Riley & A ; O’Hare, 2000 ) . This theoretical account utilizes four support groups in order to accomplish stableness for public order every bit good as public wellness. The four groups compile of bar, intervention, enforcement, and injury decrease ( MacPherson, 2001 ) .

This model is geared towards those wrongdoers in demand of rehabilitation intervention for their drug dependence all awhile concentrating on public upset of drugs and cut downing the usage of them.

The injury decrease theoretical account ‘s chief foundation is to decrease all the wellness jeopardies associated with drugs every bit good as the behaviours that are related to drug addictions/abuse. This theoretical account besides focuses chiefly on decreasing injury that coincides with drug addiction/abuse such as legal issues.

The injury decrease theoretical account besides states that “ no 1 should be denied services, such as health care and societal security, simply because they take certain hazards or exhibit certain behaviours that are by and large disapproved of by society as a whole, or its Torahs. ”

Additionally, this theoretical account utilizes a societal justness attack when seeking to assist alter wrongdoers behaviours associated with drug addiction/abuse, whereas in the United States the criminalisation theoretical account utilised captivity for such behaviours ( MacPherson, 2001 ) .

Dispute for Change

Policies on drugs in relation to offense in the United States have started many statements on whether these policies really work. Lyman and Potter ( 1998, p. 438 ) argues that ”Modern drug control policy is earmarked by a figure of policy schemes, each designed to turn to a specific facet of the state ‘s drug job. ” With this said the schemes utilized in these policies contain a demand and supply decrease, suppression, instruction, and rehabilitation.

With many of these schemes put in topographic point within these policies, non one has demonstrated any positive effectivity in cut downing the use of drugs ( Lyman & A ; Potter, 1998 ) . Some see this states drug job as merely merely a behavioural issue ; hence the chief focal point should be implemented on repairing the behaviours of these drug wrongdoers by implementing a rigorous policy on penalizing drug wrongdoers ( Cheung, 2000 ) .

With the of all time turning figure of drug wrongdoers being incarcerated, Boyum and Reuter ( 2005 ) province that there is small to turn out that the rigorous penalty enforced on these drug wrongdoers has any positive consequence in cut downing drug usage in the Unites States.

In the 1980s the United States cracked down to a great extent on the war on drugs implementing Torahs and policies to forbid and penalize wrongdoers that are in ownership, merchandising or are utilizing drugs. In order for the United States to implement such a war on drugs it has cost the United States over $ 12 billion dollars and yet there is no grounds to demo that this war on drugs constabulary has had any consequence on cut downing drug usage, the lone thing the war on drugs policy has contributed to is to the overcrowding prison population ( Boyum & A ; Reuter, 2005 ) . As a consequence the United States drug policies accentuate penalty for these drug wrongdoers over any type of rehabilitation which has a higher impact within communities of lower income and minorities.

Canada ‘s policy on drugs has a higher success rate, holding a lower sum of wrongdoers in prisons for drug discourtesies compared to the United States. This consequences in fewer apprehensions of wrongdoers which is besides lower than the United States every bit good as lower costs to maintain these wrongdoers in prison and a decreased figure of ex-convicts in the community.

In 1990 Canada developed new drug Torahs, these Torahs were developed to undertake past drug issues and integrated policies gained from foreign states. However there is no solid grounds that these new policies put in topographic point have had a important consequence on diminishing drug discourtesies.

However, the injury decrease theoretical account does supply information about drugs and the effects of drugs. This theoretical account besides reduces the opportunities of issues among drug wrongdoers and the community in which they live in because this theoretical account allows the drug wrongdoers to still be connected to the community and others province that the drugs involved can non unplug from the societal, physical, or policy milieus that they are involved in, merely saying that the policies that do work and can cut down drug wrongdoers and the injury they inflict is merely productive in a supportive type community that besides involves rehabilitation and instruction ( Riley and O’Hare ( 2000 ) .

A modified progress to policies on drugs is one established by Europe where drug users/offenders are accepted as a responsible individual of the community. Europe ‘s policy on drugs treats the drug wrongdoer ‘s dependence as a normal human nature issue and focuses really small on the effects it has on the wrongdoer every bit good as the community.

Europe spends much of their clip look intoing grounds as to why citizens use drugs to get down with ; they look at factors such as environment, aid from household members, and the degree of instruction of drug users. Europe views the condemnable justness system as a system that correlates the usage of drugs with issues such as societal disapproval along with unsuccessfulness and low criterions for the drug user ( Gatto, 2002 ) .

In Europe, it is to be understood that a legal beginning can non be made to except independency of one ‘s ain organic structure. However, if an open-minded position is used against drug wrongdoers the state merely seeing ways to better the life for the wrongdoers in the community ( Gatto, 2002 ) .

In decision, this study covered the frequence of drug maltreatment in relation to incarceration rates between the United States and Canada, the cost of drugs in the United States vs. Canada, the happening of offense associated with drug maltreatment, this study will besides travel over the criminalisation theoretical account every bit good as the injury decrease theoretical account and drug control policies in the United States and Canada. Is at that place any drug policy out at that place that really has positive effects? The reply is most likely No, nevertheless even though there is n’t one overall policy on drugs that has an overall positive consequence, I think the hereafter is looking more toward utilizing a greater humane attack instead than the usage of harmful attacks.

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