The background to your engagement
I am presently on arrangement with the furthering squad in Nuneaton which has in surplus of 70 five carers in and around the Nuneaton/Bedworth country. The fosterage squad consists of 4 full clip societal workers, whose function encompasses assessment work along with supervisory duty of surrogate carers in line with the Department for Children, Schools and Families ‘Working Together to Safeguard Children ‘ March 2010 which “ sets out how administrations and persons should work together to salvage and advance the public assistance of kids and immature people in conformity with the Children Act 1989 and the Children Act 2004 ” ( ( DCSF, March 2010 ) and to place arrangements for kids being accommodated under assorted subdivisions of the Children Act 1989.
While on arrangement I shadowed a societal worker involved in back uping 14 yr old Philip ‘s Foster carers to cover with peculiar behavioral issues that had led to his arrangement interrupting down. The Foster carers have 3 surrogate kids presently in their attention, Phillip 14, James 15 and David 16. The 2 Foster carers Mike 49 and Jane 46 live in a 4 sleeping room house in Hinckley. Philip had left the house and was declining to return, saying that his Foster carers did non like him and that he wanted to populate on his ain. Bed and breakfast adjustment was arranged for him for a few yearss while the state of affairs was re-assessed and a meeting with the Foster carers arranged. Cardinal to all relationships and peculiarly the interaction between Philip and his female parent, Philip and his Foster carers and societal worker and Foster carers, communicating is a cardinal constituent. Analysing how effectual communicating plays a critical portion in this client ‘s fortunes will organize the footing of this treatment.
Good communicating accomplishments are a principle constituent of effectual societal work pattern. They include active, attentive and empathic hearing, acknowledgment of verbal and non verbal communicating and general formal and informal interview techniques, as Payne has suggested, the application of communicating theory gives “ practical aid in commanding and understanding relationships and interactions with clients and a engineering of questioning and interpersonal accomplishments ” ( Payne, 2005, pg 178 ) . Over recent twelvemonth the kids looked after by surrogate carers have included an increasing proportion of hard-pressed adolescences along with the break rate for these arrangements as being high ( Farmer et al 2003 ) . One of the purposes of the furthering societal worker is to carry on elaborate appraisals of rearing attacks and schemes used by the Foster carers looking after a adolescent in a long term arrangement and how these schemes can alter and develop during the class of the arrangement.
Research has been conducted into furthering undertaking with striplings by Farmer et Al ( 2004 ) , found that they were concerns about the behavior and good being of kids when they move into a new arrangements. The findings in this instance survey highlighted a figure of factors that contributed to the dislocation in the relationship with the Foster carers and Philip and eventually the arrangement. In this state of affairs I had found out the Philip ‘s societal worker had non communicated the nature and context of behavioral issues associated with him to the surrogate carer ‘s societal worker so that Foster carers could hold been better informed.
Following the arrangement breakdown the Foster carers had reflected on their ain deficiency of cognition and experience at covering with immature people with behavioral jobs had highlighted the demand for specific preparation in this country for surrogate carers.
Using the stuff from portion 1, critically analyse the challenges in guaranting good pattern in pass oning with this service user/s or carer/s
What theory underpins your interaction?
Modern societal work theory incorporates societal psychological science and societal building theory to understand the manner groups in society relate to each other and create and maintain societal individualities. Social psychological science has influenced societal work pattern specifically with constructs from function theory and communicating theory. Role theory offers a point of view in sociology and besides within societal psychological science that includes most of mundane activities to be the acted out of socially defined classs such as female parent, supervisor, and lector. Each specifying societal function comes with a set of rights, responsibilities, outlooks, norms and behaviour a individual has to be able to carry through. Communication theory uses a scope of constructs from the scientific to the humanistic, to assist us understand how people conduct themselves in making, interchanging and construing messages ( Farrell, 1987 ) . These constructs help us to understand forms of linguistic communication and place “ how people construct their societal universe… .helping them to retrace the universe by utilizing linguistic communication otherwise to place possibilities for alteration ” ( Payne, 2005, pg 161 ) .
Communication theory is concerned with a scope of thoughts that can explicate how persons, groups and administrations communicate with each other. Linguistically, in the signifier of the spoken and written word and other mediums, and not verbal signifiers, such as organic structure linguistic communication and the manner we speak, including tone, pitch, modulation and velocity. Communication is more than the mere transmittal of facts, as has been suggested “ information might be facts, or other things that might be learned, such as emotions, memories, bodily esthesiss or an thought about how person feels about you ” ( Payne, 2005, pg 171 or 178 ) and furthermore that “ linguistic communication informs the manner we think, the manner we experience, and the manner we interact with each other. Language provides the footing of community, but besides the evidences for division ” ( Thompson 2003:36 )
This suggests that communicating webs are inextricably linked to societal individuality, ethnicity, civilization and category. As Payne suggests, “ webs of communicating construct up and how we communicate and with whom, becomes portion of our civilization and societal dealingss, for illustration, cultural and category division are marked by separation in communicating webs ” and “ forms of communicating frequently express power, domination and subordination. Communication may, hence, assist us to place subjugation and inequality ” ( Payne, 2005, pg 171 ) . If we use linguistic communication, along with the capacity to pass on, to organize our lives and to associate to others, so societal workers need to be sensitively cognizant how their pick of words and manner of communicating in intensely personal and emotional charged state of affairss, can increase and diminish subjugation in their interactions with immature people. For illustration, usage of professional slang without account may estrange a client by making a linguistic communication barrier between societal worker and the service user or carer.
Where a kid is suspected of being in demand of protection the societal worker must equilibrate the demands of the immature individuals safety along with the potency of interrupting up the household. The societal worker that I shadowed believed that the demands of immature people in surrogate attention could be met through meaningful, consistent and positive relationships with the Foster carer whilst on the other manus you have child attention policy which is chiefly about safeguarding, results and answerability.
A important clip for immature people spans 12-19 old ages, this is when they ask themselves: Who am I? Where do I desire to be? During this period they are besides concerned with how they appear to others and what groups and webs they identify with. Erikson footings this psychosocial phase as the Identity versus Role Confusion period ( Beckett, 2002 ) .
“ Attachment theory offers an apprehension of personality development and behavior in close relationships and provides an history of the difference in people ‘s emotional and relationship manners ” . ( Howe, 2000 ) .A John Bowlby is considered to the head-shrinker that developed the fond regard theory. Bolwby suggests that when kids are separated from their parents or attention giver they suffer loss because of the fond regard between them. I can see how Philip may hold felt when he thought the he had to go forth his place for a 2nd clip holding already lost the place of his birth female parent, it is thought by the societal worker and the Foster carers that one of the ground that Philip does non desire to return is because he does non desire to endure loss once more. This has had an obvious affect of Philip ‘s behavior, the dogmas of this theory is that close relationships or fond regards have a direct consequence on the emotional and societal development across a lifetime ( Howe 2000 ) .
Howe ( 2009 ) describes avoidant fond regards as kids and immature people whom display avoidant fond regards as holding parent ( s ) that are either apathetic whom have their ain injury traveling on or are emotionally stiff or wholly rejecting of their kid ‘s demands. Although parents will respond good when their kid is happy and content that shortly alterations when the kid needs alteration for case when their kid is in hurt and is need of comfort. Howe suggest that “ efforts at familiarity merely seem to increase parental distance, even slight ” , this communication to the kid that they are non wanted.
Attachment to place and a safe topographic point is a primary ways in which people preserve self-identity. “ the manner in which people identify and become attached to topographic points, edifices, objects, and how this fond regard can lend to personal wellbeing or how we feel about ourselves ( Low et al 1992 ) . To look at why these topographic points, edifice and objects become of import provides us with penetration into what happens when people have to travel and the quandary that they may confront. Attachment is an emotional relationship that provides dependability, continuity, attention and comfort. John Bowlby writes in his research associating to the construct of fond regard, depicting it as a “ permanent psychological connection between human existences ” ( Bowlby, 1969, p. 194 ) . Bowlby held the psychoanalytic position that early old ages experiences of a kid has an of import leaning toward development and behavior subsequently in life, most attachment manners are formed in the early old ages of childhood developed through the relationship with the care-giver.
Mary Ainsworth during the 1970 ‘s built on the work of Bowlby ‘s work in her survey called “ Strange state of affairss ” which looked at kids where they were left entirely for a short period of clip so rapidly comforted by the attention giver/mother ( Ainsworth, 1978 ) . These help her to explicate the fond regard categorization system, which examine specific differences in a kid ‘s usage of attachment figures as a changeless and dependable base from which they can so research the environment. Change requires personal accommodation, and some alteration can be more nerve-racking than others. When confronting a move frights of accommodation and a alteration in familiar environment and life conditions can be seen as a major job for immature people. Philip was loath to travel out of the country that he lived at with his Foster carers, he felt that if he had to travel to back up housing that it would be in an are where he has had jobs in the yesteryear.
Care Management involves measuring demands and maintaining a alert oculus over a figure of services that are provided by workers other than the societal worker, the function of attention director is non new to societal work and has existed for many old ages, historically the societal worker would set up a bundle of attention, seek the positions of the service user, engage with other professionals when roll uping information relevant to the attention bundle following that there would be an appraisal so the societal worker would prosecute appropriate services that met the demand of the service user.
Discrimination, Inequality and subjugation, Separation and Loss
Solution focused ( brief ) theory
Solution-Focused Brief Therapy ( SFBT ) is based on solution-building instead than problem-solving. SFBT explores the here and now and planned aspirations opposed to work outing the current jobs this method of working with immature people can be practiced every bit good as other intercessions.
The theoretical underpinnings of solution-focused brief therapy have been developed out of doctrine every bit good as an grasp of pass oning positive results through a originative procedure. Primary because the focal point of this intercession is on future ends set by the immature individual, more significantly because with this method of intercession shows that jobs are non limited by boundaries hence neither the societal worker ( and other professionals ) can non be incorrect the tends to take to understandings being forged. This had been found to assist construct the relationship with David so that he felt that he was being heard through his verbal and non verbal communicating. However whilst there is non a grounded apprehension that identify the nature of the job SFBT it creates jobs in being able to mensurate efficaciousness. In this case SFBT was used to construct assurance, trust and capacity with David so that he would be prepared for his hereafter with the current Foster carers.
Undertaking centred pattern
Undertaking Centred societal work provides a clear model for professional intercession, it deal with current ( here and now ) jobs. It focuses on the job and attempts to negociate and hold a method of covering with the job by placing ends and puting timescales.
There are 2 primary constituents of this attack which are
Crisis intercession theories
Outcomes Led Approach
Children do non hold the same linguistic communication accomplishments or the emotional development of grownups and therefore their fond regard anxiousnesss are triggered halting them showing themselves verbally and bring forthing dysfunctional or attachment behaviors. Attachment behaviors can include minimising looks of hurt, that is the kid knows that when their parent is shouting at them and the kid is distressed this consequences in farther parental rejection, so the kid learns to understate looks of hurt. The kid acts happy even when frighten. In contrast the kid express graet hurt, particularly when a parent is about to go forth a type of attending seeking behavior is pass oning but non stating verbally “ demo me you love me ” .
Rearing a adolescent in surrogate attention can be immensely different from the ordinary rearing a birth kid that is now a adolescent. With the Foster kid at that place necessitate to be a acknowledgment and apprehension of the immature individual background along with any old arrangement dislocations whether there are any disturbed and hard behaviors. Foster carers must help in seting the immature individual ‘s defense mechanism mechanisms, developing fond regards with the surrogate household whilst wherever possible keeping links with the birth household. The Foster carers felt that due to a recent statement with Philips birth female parent he felt that no 1 liked him as his birth female parent had chastised him for his linguistic communication toward her.
What accomplishments are necessary?
Report composing in conformity to the BAAF criterions, work burden and clip direction.
Correspondence and record maintaining
Empathy is a dominant construct within societal work. Recieving empathy enhances a clients feeling of ego worth by pass oning to them that they are apprehensible and are deserving understanding. A societal workers verbal and non verbal responses are important to pass oning to the client they are being understood and entails accomplishments “ to filtrate out and feedback subjects and nucleus messages in the client communicating ” ( )
Communicationss accomplishments are indispensable in effectictive societal work pattern throughout the phases of appraisal, planning, intercession and reappraisal. Questioning accomplishments need to be employed to derive greater elucidation refering highly personal issues and to constructively challemge client to recognize their duties. For illustration, in the appraisal procedure the truth of information is critical. However, the nature of this information is frequently sensitive and loaded with emotion and feeling from the yesteryear. If surrogate carers and immature people are able to portion this type of information they need to be convinced that there are being understood.
What cognition is required?
In my interaction with service users and specifically in this instance service suppliers ( surrogate carers ) human development theory influences my attack and signifier of communicating.
What techniques are appropriate?
Interview – formal and informal
From my larning position, this instance analyze high spots the complexnesss associated with working with kids with behavioral issues. It was an chance to analyze how societal work can and does turn to thiese issues through the legislative and policy models, along with our ain cognition and experience every bit good as the values and moralss set out in the National Occupational Standards.
Your analysis should besides include contemplation on your accomplishments and larning demands
( 500 words including 500 word description of an interaction with a service user )
Department of Children, Schools and Families ( 2010 ) Working Together to Safeguard Children: A Guide to Interagency Working ToSafeguard and Promote the Welfare of Children Nottingham: DCSF Publications.
Thompson, N. ( 2003 ) Communication and Language: A Handbook of Theory and Practice. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Low, S, & A ; Altman, I. ( 1992 ) ‘Place fond regard: a conceptual enquiry ‘ in Altman, I. and Low, S.M. ( explosive detection systems ) Place Attachment, New York: Plenum Press.
Thompson, N. ( 2005 ) Understanding Social Work, Preparation for Practice- Second edition. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Department of Health ( 1991 ) . Care Management and Assessment: a Practioners Guide. London: HMSO.
Howe, D. ( 2000 ) ‘Attachment Theory ‘ . In Davies, M. ( erectile dysfunction ) . The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Social Work. Oxford: Blackwell ( pp 25-27 ) .
Howe, D. ( 1995 ) Attachment Theory for Social Work Practice. New York: Palgrave.
Farmer, E. , Moyes, S. , Lipscombe, J, ( 2004 ) ‘Fostering Adolescents ‘ Jessica Kingsley: London
Farmer, E, . Moyers, M, ( 2003 ) Rearing accomplishments striplings: Skills and starategies, London School for policy Studies, University of Bristol: Bristol
Care direction is garnering information and seeking out how demands can be best met whilst enabling the service user to entree services required, it besides monitors service bringing guaranting that their services are go oning to run into the identified demands. The relationship between societal worker and carer is a continually developing one whereby the negotiating with other professionals and giving and having information, this is all done in a non judgemental manner enabling the carer to besides develop their ain accomplishments of negociating. I this instance the carer was concerned with accomplishing a signifier of understanding or apprehension as to the sum of surrogate kids she could hold at her place.
It is of import non to do the carer feel that attention direction is all about clicking boxes and guaranting that the right piece of paper have been completed, if this where the instance so there would non be the demand for societal work accomplishments when manage attention bundles.
Features of Attachment
“ Bowlby held that there were four features of fond regard:
Proximity Maintenance – The desire to be near the people we are attached to.
Safe Haven – Returning to the attachment figure for comfort and safety in the face of a fright or menace.
Secure Base – The attachment figure acts as a base of security from which the kid can research the surrounding environment.
Separation Distress – Anxiety that occurs in the absence of the attachment figure ” . ( Bowlby, 1969 ) .
Care Management, “ involves supervising the proviso of a bundle of attention services geared toward keeping person in the community who would otherwise necessitate to trust on institutional proviso ” ( Thompson 2005 p69 ) . Good attention direction encompasses a macro overview when finishing the appraisal, it should be completed in partnership with the service user and household paying respect to the strength and failings every bit good as their ability to look at their life history and pass on the ground they find themselves in the current state of affairs. Care Management is defined in authorities counsel as “ the procedure of orienting services to single demands ” ( DOH, 1991: B ) .