Technology and World Change: Plastic Surgery Essay

1. History Of Cosmetic Surgery

The earliest hints of Plastic Surgery day of the month back about 4000 old ages ago in ancient Egypt with grounds of skin transplants being used for the intervention on the face to mend breaks and facial hurt. But the earliest written record was by Hindu sawbones. Shushruta in 600BC on processs done on the nose. now known as Rhinoplasty. There were besides hints in ancient Rome of chest decreases done on corpulent work forces and retracing ears and olfactory organs sliced off in gladiator battles ( Lanham. 2009 ) . Given that the process was done before polymer plastics was found. it is interesting to observe that the term “Plastic” is derived from the Grecian word plastikos. which means to model or determine. During the Middle Ages in Europe. Plastic Surgery became less popular due to a figure of factors. First. it was deemed iniquitous by the Church as it is believed that the organic structure was a work of God and should non be mended.

Second. the processs were known to be really painful. as anaesthetics were non developed until the nineteenth century. It was merely after local anaesthetics became available that people were more receptive of the thought of Plastic surgery. Third. the hazard of infection was high as antibiotics were non available. the techniques and equipment were crude and hygiene safety criterions merely started to better during the Renaissance country. Apart from the innovation of anti-infection drugs and anaesthetics. other non-medical events besides changed people’s attitudes towards plastic surgery. The two World Wars changed attitudes towards rehabilitative surgery as it was used to repair disfigurations such as tattered jaws and unfastened skull lesions ( Lanham. 2009 ) . The original purpose of Plastic Surgery was chiefly rehabilitative. that is to rectify aesthetic or functional jobs. The first Plastic Surgeon in the United States. Dr. John P. Mettauer work on Cleft Palate patients in 1827 ( Schnur & A ; Pamela. 2010 ) .

However today. plastic surgery has branched into two chief Fieldss: Cosmetic Surgery and Reconstructive Surgery. The techniques may be similar. but the purposes and consequences are different with the former being about heightening physical visual aspect and the latter closer to the original purpose. though the line between the two can sometimes be blurred. Today. Plastic surgery has become much more accessible. with costs and hazard traveling down and a broad assortment of processs available. from the invasive to the non-invasive. Apart from this. with increased prominence and exposure through the mainstream media. more people are sing Cosmetic Surgery as a platitude process.

2. Reconstructive Surgery

Reconstructive surgery can be defined as a process that restores the map and visual aspect of a specific portion of the organic structure ( Mosby. 2009 ) . In 2009. it was performed 3. 5 times more than decorative processs ( ASPS. 2010 ) . It is appropriate under 3 conditions: 1 ) medical intents. 2 ) birth defects and developmental abnormalcies. and 3 ) traumatic hurts ( Erhardt. 2010 ) .

2. 1 Medical Purposes

Reconstructive surgery is frequently performed to handle or forestall medical conditions. Among the processs. the intervention of tumours and skin malignant neoplastic disease constitutes the largest proportion. accounting for more than 75 % of processs performed in the US in 2009 ( American Society of Plastic Surgeons. 2010 ) The remotion of skin malignant neoplastic disease or tumours by surgical biopsy frequently requires Reconstruction of the affected country that may affect tegument flap or grafting processs. The purpose of these processs is on the intervention of an unwanted visual aspect or on controling an internal spread of the disease. With the enormous promotion of medical equipment. surgical tools and techniques. tumour and skin malignant neoplastic disease patients are now able to have interventions that are effectual in both the remotion of diseases and preservation/restoration of normal physical visual aspects ( Erhardt. 2010 ) .

2. 2 Birth Defects

Reconstructive surgery has helped work out birth defects and developmental abnormalcies that inhibit day-to-day activities that may besides ensue in societal and self-esteem issues ( Operation Smile. 2010 ) . Among the most common are dissected lips and cleft roof of the mouths of which there is one per 500-700 births ( World Health Organization. 2001 ) – accounting for more than 60 % of all birth defect Reconstruction processs carried out by ASPS member sawboness ( American Society of Plastic Surgeons. 2010 ) . An gap in the upper lip between a newborn’s oral cavity and nose Markss a cleft lip while a cleft roof of the mouth occurs when the roof of the oral cavity has an gap in it. impacting children’s ability to eat. speak. hear. breathe and socialize.

With the aid of anaesthetics. the surgery takes about 45 proceedingss to execute and involves shifting of tissue and musculuss to shut the cleft and reconstruct the roof of the oral cavity ( The Smile Train. 2010 ) . The full intervention involves prosthetics. anaesthetics and expertness from a host of health care specializers. These are necessary steps that guarantee the most effectual diagnosing. intervention. recovery and hence life quality that a kid can hold. However. this would non hold been possible without the proficient and technological edification that is characteristic of modern twenty-four hours health care and medical specialty.

2. 3 Traumatic Injury

Plastic surgery has been used to handle traumatic hurts such as those caused by Burnss. carnal bites and auto accidents. One of the most up-to-date processs in this country is face graft surgery. described as the individual most of import country of rehabilitative research ( Mason. 2005 ) . The process involves surgically reassigning healthy tissue from a brain-dead giver to a receiver. During the existent process. healthy tissue is harvested from the giver while non-viable injured tissue is removed from the receiver. Surgeons so restore blood flow. reattach nervousnesss. musculuss and bony constructions. and reconnect each bed of the transplanted face to that of the receiver.

More frequently than non. patients require other follow-up surgeries and necessitate womb-to-tomb usage of immunosuppressant drugs. which may increase the long-run hazard of malignant neoplastic disease. infection and kidney failure. Other possible complications that may originate include rejection of the new face and decreased esthesis or motion of the graft. The first full face graft was performed on a Spanish husbandman on 20 March 2010 by a squad of 30 Spanish physicians ( Consumer Guide to Plastic Surgery. 2010 ) .

3. Cosmetic Surgery

Cosmetic surgery has been on the increasing tendency since engineering immensely improved efficiency and success rates while surgical processs in the field have been made more commercially available in recent old ages. In 2007. there were about 11. 7 million processs undertaken in the US. an addition of 557 % from 2. 1 million in 1997. ( Cosmetic Surgery Statistics. 2008 ) . Multiple grounds have propelled decorative surgery to its current position of ubiquitousness. These include increased commercialisation. improved engineering. media influence and social force per unit areas. Due to restrictions in this study. we will concentrate on the most popular including. chest augmentation. suction lipectomy. and sexual greening such as penial expansion ( phalloplasty ) and vaginal greening.

3. 1 Breast Augmentation

Breast augmentation is designed to increase flop size by engrafting silicone gel implants into a pocket either straight behind the chest tissue or underneath the thoracic musculuss. The implant will be inserted by doing a little scratch under the chest. below the areola. or within the axilla. One invention is an instrument called the Keller Funnel. which is a conic. nylon-based device used to impel alternatively of forcing the implant into topographic point via the normal process. It drastically decreases the hazard of bacterial infection and capsular contracture. an immune reaction by the musculuss ( Keller. 2009 ) . Trials have showed a direct addition in self-esteem in correlativity to the surgical process. an approximative 17 % addition on the Rosenberg graduated table ( Figueroa-Haas. 2007 ) .

3. 2 Liposuction

Liposuction was foremost done by infixing a cannula under the tegument and forcefully traveling it back and Forth to free fat. which was so sucked out. Today. there are many new techniques and processs. Lipo-Vibe utilizes air force per unit area to bring forth 3D acoustic energy unidimensional quiver of ultrasound to free fat that is so removed by a cannula. The form of motion enables the Lipo-Vibe to run at infrasonic frequences. which are much safer than the high-frequency energy generated by ultrasound. Another technique is Waterjet-Assisted Liposuction. which uses H2O incorporating anaesthetic fluids to cut down hurting and burising to blush out targeted fat without wounding environing tissues. Laser suction lipectomy uses supersonic energy applied through the cannula or from outside the organic structure. through the tegument to split the walls of the fat cells fiber ocular optical maser engineering to run fat and tighten tegument. It is highly precise. necessitating merely local anaesthesia.

3. 3 Sexual Rejuvenation

For the adult females. laser vaginal greening uses laser engineering to assist fasten the vagina. which increases frictional forces and sensitiveness during sexual intercourse. Another popular process is laser labiaplasty that reduces the vaginal country by sculpting the labia minora and environing countries. making a cleaner and more vernal visual aspect. For the work forces. there is girth enlargement that involves the usage of liposuctioned fats. which uses of fat extracted from local fat shops such as the venters or natess and straight injected into the phallus. In cuticular transplant transportation. two fatty strips. about an inch broad and a one-fourth of an inch midst from the gluteal crease are removed and a little scratch is made at the fatty strips are placed under the tegument at the caput. Length Elongation involves break uping the suspensory ligament that joins the phallus to the pubic bone. Additional penile length that is suspended within the organic structure will so be free to widen farther. ensuing in increased length.

4. Drivers & A ; Deductions

4. 1 Economic

The plastic surgery industry is quickly turning. In 2009. about 12. 5 million decorative surgical processs were performed in the US. a 69 % addition since 2000 ( ASPS. 2010 ) . These processs generated more than US $ 10 billion of consumer outgo. more than the nominal GDP of around 60 states ( International Monetary Fund. 2010 ) . Beyond the USA. the planetary market for decorative surgery merchandises and services stood at US $ 36. 1 billion in 2008. and is expected to make $ 47. 1 billion in 2013. with a compound one-year growing rate ( CAGR ) of 5. 2 % for the service sector and 9. 5 % for the merchandise sector ( BCC Research. 2009 ) .

One chief driver is the development of Minimally Invasive Procedures. which is described under Section 4. 2. It has besides been cited that the rise in demand for decorative surgery is due to the babe boomer coevals coming of age and their desire to continue young person and wellness ( American Academy of Cosmetic Surgery. 2010 ) . The recent prevalence of funding companies supplying loans for persons who wish to travel for elected decorative surgery has besides become another driver for growing ( MedChoice Financial. 2010 )

4. 2 Socio-cultural

The chief driver for demand of decorative surgery is the media. which has perpetuated and bombarded society with an thought of physical beauty. From the physical examination put on famous persons to reality Television shows such as “Extreme Makeover” and the “The Swan” . These shows portray drastic alterations that exaggerate the likeliness of positive consequences. Condensing the processs into short telecasting plans makes the processs and recovery seem shorter than the really are. Complications. infections. failures and side effects are barely mentioned. making the semblance that the processs are low-risk. In this sense. the media has greatly influenced society on what a being good looking and normal is without cautiousness to viewing audiences that it might non be existent. Hence many viewing audiences try to run into this criterion by traveling under the knife.

4. 2. 1 Deductions

Security Concerns

With the increased handiness of plastic surgery. this poses a menace to the security of the state and community. Terrorist suspects or felons at big can merely change their visual aspects to avoid being identified and captured. With the combination of bogus individualities. physicians will non be able to place them. doing them even more elusive.

Social Compulsion

An estimated 30 per centum of Korean adult females aged 20 to 50. or some 2. 4 million adult females. had surgical or nonsurgical decorative processs in 2008 with many holding more than one process ( Fackler. 2009 ) . Children from every bit immature as 14 have undergone oculus surgery and parents have begun to confer these processs as popular graduation gifts to their kids. This accent on expressions should non be coupled with the quiet credence that one’s expressions are unequal. There is a fright that one will fall behind his or her equals if they have non been remade and this plagues the full younger coevals of Koreans.


It is reported that approximately 7 to 15 per centum of people bespeaking plastic surgery suffer from organic structure dysmorphic upset – an compulsion with a little or fanciful defect in 1s visual aspect. These patients attempt to rectify themselves but experience the same. if non worse. after surgery. About 15 to 20 per centum of campaigners are depressed because of their visual aspect and have substance maltreatment issues ( Hyland. 2008 ) .

5. Future and Emerging Trends and Technologies

Among the legion new engineerings emerging. a few have stood out to be at the head of medical invention that have transcended into or hold the possible to lend to the development of Plastic Surgery. We will research three in this study including the usage of Stem Cells. development of minimally invasive processs every bit good as Robotic Surgery.

5. 1 Stem Cell Treatment

At the head of new tendencies is the usage of Stem Cells in Plastic Surgery. They have the power to mend damaged tissues. reconstruct beauty and have been proven to hold the possible to handle and even bring around antecedently incurable disease ( National Institutes of Health. 2009 ) . There are stem cells derived from embryos or grownup root cells. the former of which is at the Centre of many ethical contentions. As such. the latter. derived from fat and are able to go different tissues including fat. bone and nervousnesss. taking the signifier of environing cells as they grow ( National Institutes of Health. 2009 ) . Today. these cells can be harvested from one portion of the organic structure and injected into another to fix. rejuvenate and renew the coveted country. In Cosmetic Surgery. they are used to heighten and handle the furrows. eyes. temple. mentum. cicatrixs. and dimples among many others.

In term of Reconstruction. these root cells have been used to mend bosom tissues after bosom onslaughts. articulatio genus articulations and gristle. nervousnesss. castanetss and even variety meats such as the pancreas in diabetics. Among the new processs is Organic Breast Augmentation whereby a woman’s ain fat is used alternatively of Si or saline implants ( Templeton. 2009 ) . It has been touted as being safer. more realistic and the fact that it involves suction lipectomy has increased its entreaty as it has a two-in-one benefit.

This is non merely a decorative surgery but can besides be used to retrace malformations of chest malignant neoplastic disease patients ensuing remotion of cancerous balls. Fictile Surgeons have been utilizing root cells for over a decennary and it has proven to hold non merely long permanent consequences but besides curative consequences in injured tissues. Besides. because root cells are found in a patient’s ain organic structure. there is a low chance of rejection and easy accessible with ample supply in most persons – doing it safer and more low-cost.

5. 2 Minimally Invasive Procedures

Pain. hazard and the idea of traveling under the knife have long been hindrances to people sing plastic surgery. be it for reconstructive or decorative agencies. This has fueled the development of minimally and even non-invasive processs. Among the most popular processs are Botox. known medically as Botulinum Toxin Type A. which is a chemically injected to suppress the release of acetylcholine. which produces furrows ( Miller. 2010 ) . Other popular processs include non-surgical Rhinoplasty. Though it can non be used to cut down nose size. it can be used to heighten the visual aspect and symmetricalness shooting cuticular fillers alternatively of a full operation. By doing processs less invasive. take downing the clip required for healing and utilizing new engineering such as Lasik for the rectification of oculus jobs. it has increased the overall entreaty of Cosmetic Surgery. There is besides the potency of handling people with minor malformations and disablements such as hapless seeing and cicatrixs. The entreaty and possible both socially and economically is doing this one of the chief waies Plastic Surgeons are taking to.

5. 3 Robotic Surgery

Robotic surgery is at the cutting border of new medical engineering. Since the PUMA 560 was used in 1985 for a neurological biopsy ( Desai. Meyers. Lanfranco. & A ; Castellanos. 2003 ) . automatons have been used to execute many major operations including instances of malignant neoplastic disease and bosom jobs. By utilizing automatons. endoscopic engineering. pinhole and 3D cameras. robotic surgery has allowed for surgery to be more accurate as the sawbones is now able to see better. and the cuts the sawbones has to do can besides be smaller – ensuing in a lower hazard of infection ( Cowles. 2009 ) . Presently. most robotic surgeries are done within the same or next suites. but with greater Internet connectivity. trials are being done for celebrated sawboness to carry on operations stat mis off from where they really are.

This opens chances for top sawboness to carry on operations in many topographic points. sharing the cognition and accomplishments with local physicians present in the operating theater with the patients. Given the high costs of execution and operation. it might non be executable for common decorative surgery. but if it can be used for major operations. it could be applied to reconstructive surgery patients such as those necessitating major tegument transplants or malformations ensuing from an accident. It speeds up the response clip and physicians with alone accomplishments can carry on their surgeries in the Emergency Room about anyplace. Bing a new development. much more testing still needs to be done. but this could potentially be a tool for ‘Celebrity Surgeons’ to market themselves to high paying clients in other states as good.

6. Decision

Plastic surgery has a broad scope of benefits for society. But with the addition handiness and entreaty of decorative processs. the issues have overshadowed the possibilities. It must be emphasized that plastic surgery is non a panacea for any self-esteem and gender issues. Surgeons besides play in an of import but at odds function. equilibrating both concern and medical involvements. Where it will take us in the hereafter is still unsure. but we are decidedly traveling to see more of it.


American Academy of Cosmetic Surgery. ( 2010 éèë 9-March ) . New study indicates more than 17 million decorative processs performed last twelvemonth in U. S. Chicago. American Society of Plastic Surgeons. ( 2010 ) . National Clearinghouse of Plastic Surgery Statistics. Arlington Heights. Illinois: American Society of Plastic Surgeons. BCC Research. ( 2009 ) . ReportLinker. Retrieved 2010 éèë 20-October from ReportLinker Website: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. reportlinker. com/p0132720/Cosmetic-Surgery-Markets-Products-and-Services. html Consumer Guide to Plastic Surgery. ( 2010 ) . Consumer Guide to Plasitc Surgery. Retrieved 10 23. 2010. from Consumer Guide to Plastic Surgery: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. yourplsticsurgeryguide. com/ Cosmetic Surgery Statistics. ( 2008 ) . Cosmetic Surgery Statistics. Retrieved 10 19. 2010. from Cosmetic Surgery Statistics: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. cosmeticplasticsurgerystatistics. com/statistics. hypertext markup language Cowles. R. A. ( 2009 éèë 03-02 ) . Robotic Surgery: Medline Plus Medical Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2010 éèë 17-10 from Medline Plus: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. nlm. National Institutes of Health. gov/medlineplus/ency/article/007339. htm Desai. J. P. . Meyers. W. C. . Lanfranco. A. R. . & A ; Castellanos. A. E. ( 2003 éèë 3-Jul ) . Robotic Surgery: A Current Position: Background and History of Surgical Robots. Retrieved 2010 éèë 17-Oct from MedScape: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. medscape. com/viewarticle/466691_2 Erhardt. W. ( 2010 ) . Erhardt

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