Substance Abuse Essay

Abstraction

“Two stairss frontward. one measure back is an ineluctable world for substance-abuse societal workers. in-demand guidance professionals who assist alkies and drug maltreaters on the route to recovery. These societal workers recognize that chemical dependence is a chronic status with a high rate of backsliding. for which there is seldom a speedy hole ( monster. com. para1 ) . ” Social Workers and their occupations and demands are immensely altering and the face of societal work is altering every bit good. Social Workers were deemed chiefly to help with schools. occupations. and authorities bureaus. The standard for the mentally sick and the maltreaters have been thrown in every bit good and societal workers are assisting.

Social work is a profession that is everlastingly altering. The function of societal work as it relates to substance abuse/mental wellness has a function of assistant. advocator. and pedagogue and in the hereafter these functions will embrace even more duties and assignments. Substance abuse/mental wellness are two issues that affect our lives. economic system. behaviours and households.

Substance maltreatment is when the usage of a substance repeatedly and that usage if the substance has societal effects that relate to taking the substance. This means that when the individual is on the substance they can non run into the demands for work. school and household duties. A substance is any medicine that can be used or abused to either stimulate or deject the organic structure and head. Dependence is better known as dependence. Addiction is when alterations physiologically and behaviorally the individual is altered. If a individual gets the effects and if the individual ceases taking the substance. so backdown symptoms will prevail and allows us to cognize that this individual is addicted. ” Substance maltreatment is more likely to be diagnosed among those who have merely begun taking drugs and is frequently an early symptom of substance dependance ( medicaldictionary. com ) . ” Examples of substances of substance maltreatment include: intoxicant. hemp. cocaine. psychedelic drugs. inhalants. nicotine and depressants. Some of the more common or drugs that may be readily available would include: caffeine. intoxicant. gum. over-the –counter drugs and prescription medicines.

There are factors that are thought to lend a individual going a substance maltreater. The first is familial factors. Surveies have shown that there is a cistron that is associated with alcohol addiction. Psychopathology is the 2nd factor that may do a individual more disposed to going a substance maltreater because the usage of the substance can extinguish issues if you already have Bi polar upset. depression or other upsets. The concluding factor is a erudite behaviour and it determines if the individual that is exposed to the substance will go on to utilize it based on whether or non it is accepted. DSM-IV-TR has seven standards have to be met to be diagnosed as holding substance dependance.

All seven do non hold to be met in order to be diagnosed. but three have to at least be met. ( 1 ) The individual has developed a tolerance for the substance with extended usage of the substance. ( 2 ) The individual will demo or experience all the mental. emotional and physiological alterations that stop use of the substance ( 3 ) The individual uses the substance for drawn-out periods of clip in greater sums than they originally started. ( 4 ) The individual tried over and over once more to diminish the use of the substance or halt. ( 5 ) The individual uses the bulk of their clip utilizing and happening the substance and retrieving from the effects. ( 6 ) The individual is unable to work and hold active societal lives because of substance maltreatment. ( 7 ) The individual continues to utilize after the negative effects on the organic structure are apparent.

“There are three ends for the intervention of people with substance usage upsets: ( 1 ) acquire the patient to abstain from the substance ; ( 2 ) acquire the patient to cut down the frequence and badness of backslidings ; and ( 3 ) acquire the patient to develop the psychological and emotional accomplishments necessary to reconstruct and keep personal. occupational. and societal operation ( medicaldictionary. com ) . ” With intervention each substance maltreater should be assessed. hold a intervention program created and make some type of mental wellness intervention program. “Prevention is best aimed at adolescents and immature grownups aged 18-24 who are at really high hazard for substance experimentation. Prevention plans should include an educating those at hazard and inform of that substance usage and advise on how to defy peer force per unit area to utilize drugs. Prevention plans should work to place and aim kids who are at comparatively higher hazard for substance maltreatment ( medicaldictionary. com ) . ”

Effectss of substance maltreatment on kids may include the fact that kids that are raised by alkies and/or drug users tend to be unpredictable and helter-skelter. which tends to take to jobs in their grownup life. The parents may hold temper swings. which can confound kids. The kids so have to be prepared mentally and physically for a parent that may be high or rummy. Mental wellness is the province of an single being able to get by with life and non be able to work and be subscriber to the community. “The CDC estimates that merely approximately 17 % of U. S grownups are considered to be in a province of optimum mental wellness. There is emerging grounds that positive mental wellness is associated with improved wellness results. Mental unwellness is the neutering of the manner a individual thinks defined. One of the most common signifiers of mental unwellness is depression. Depression is the most common type of mental unwellness. impacting more than 26 % of the U. S. grownup population. Some of the most common upsets include depression. anxiousness. bipolar upset and schizophrenic disorder.

Depression is mood upset that gives the feelings of hopelessness. desperation. and unhappiness for no peculiar ground makes it unnatural. The individual may see deficiency of motive and it may change the manner the head and organic structure Acts of the Apostless or reacts. When the organic structure is impaired badly mentally without cause so a individual is thought to be psychotic ( medicaldictionary. com ) . ” “Depression can be familial. pharmacologic. endocrine. infective. nutritionary. neoplastic. or neurologic. the behavioural effects can look as aggression or backdown. anorexia or gluttony. choler or apathy. or any of countless response ( freedictionary. com ) . ” “Anxiety is a feeling. Anxiety is a sensed menace or danger. It reflects a combination of biochemical alterations in the organic structure along with the patient’s personal history and memory. and the societal state of affairss can do this feeling. It is of import to separate between anxiousness as a feeling or experience. and it can be anxiety upset or a psychiatric diagnosing.

A individual may experience dying or afraid. Person confronting a clear and present danger or a fright is non normally considered to be in a province of anxiousness ( freedictionary. com ) . ” Bipolar upset is a upset that switches from one extreme of manic to depressive. Manic is where the individual feels energetic or euphoric. Then the individual goes through periods of depression or hopelessness for extended or unknown periods of clip. These episodes can turn into rhythms. It depends on the badness of the instance as to how long the rhythms of manic and depression will last. Bipolar upset is found genetically in kids who have one parent with at least one parent with a upset are more than probably to develop another upset such as ADHD. Several surveies have uncovered possible familial connexions to the sensitivity for bipolar upset. “According to the American Psychiatric Association. the DSM-IV-TR describes a frenzied episode as an abnormally elevated or cranky temper enduring a period of at least one hebdomad that is distinguished by at least three of the passion symptoms: inflated self- regard. decreased demand for slumber. garrulity. rushing ideas. distractibility. addition in purposive activity. or inordinate engagement in enjoyable activities that have a high potency for painful effects.

If the temper of the patient is cranky and non elevated. four of the symptoms are required. Although some clinicians find the standards excessively stiff. a hypomanic diagnosing requires continuance of at least four yearss with at least three of the symptoms indicated for frenzied episodes ( four if temper is cranky and non elevated ) . The DSM-IV-TR notes that unlike frenzied episodes. hypomanic episodes do non do a pronounced damage in societal or occupational operation. make non necessitate hospitalization. and do non hold psychotic characteristics. In add-on. because hypomanic episodes are characterized by high energy and purposive activities. frequently result in a positive result. and are perceived in a positive mode by the patient ( medicaldictionary. com ) . ” Treatment for the upset has medicine as the most effectual manner for intervention. “A combination of temper stabilising agents with antidepressants. major tranquilizers. and antiepileptics may be used to modulate frenzied and depressive episodes.

Mood stabilising agents are the most commonly prescribed drugs to handle bipolar upset. Their map is to modulate the frenzied highs and depressions of bipolar upset. Psychotherapy and reding are intervention options for the upset. Bipolar upset is thought to be biological therapy is recommended as a comrade to. but non a replacement for. pharmaceutical intervention of the disease. “Psychotherapy. such as cognitive-behavioral therapy. can be used in assisting patients and their households adjust to the upset along with medicine intervention programs and reding. Schizophrenia is a psychotic upset ( or a group of upsets ) ( medicaldictionary. com ) . ” This upset does non let for clear thought. rational behaviour or emotions as good. Most people with schizophrenic disorder do non interact with others and be given to pretermit their ain personal training demands. There are stages of the upset: ague. stabilisation and care.

“In 1908. by a Swiss physician Eugen Bleuler. to depict the dividing apart of mental maps that he regarded as the cardinal feature of schizophrenic disorder. Recently. some clinical psychologists have begun to utilize a categorization of schizophrenic disorder based on two chief types. “People with Type I. or positive schizophrenic disorder. hold a rapid ( acute ) oncoming of symptoms and tend to react good to drugs. They besides tend to endure more from the “positive” symptoms. such as psychotic beliefs and hallucinations. Peoples with Type II. or negative schizophrenic disorder. are normally described as ill adjusted before their schizophrenic disorder easy overtakes them. They have preponderantly “negative” symptoms. such as backdown from others and a deceleration of mental and physical reactions ( psychomotor deceleration ) ( medicaldictionary. com ) . ” “It is thought that these upsets are the terminal consequence of a combination of familial. neurobiological. and environmental causes. A prima neurobiological hypothesis looks at the connexion between the disease and inordinate degrees of Dopastat. a chemical that transmits signals in the encephalon ( neurotransmitter ) .

The familial factor in schizophrenic disorder has been underscored by recent findings that first-degree biological relations of schizophrenics are 10 times every bit likely to develop the upset as are members of the general population. Prior to recent findings of abnormalcies in the encephalon construction of schizophrenic patients. several coevalss of clinical psychologists advanced a figure of psychoanalytic and sociological theories about the beginnings of schizophrenic disorder. These theories ranged from hypotheses about the patient’s jobs with anxiousness or aggression to theories about stress reactions or interactions with disturbed parents. Psychosocial factors are now thought to act upon the look or badness of schizophrenic disorder instead than do it straight ( freedictionary. com. parity 16. 17. 21 ) . The intervention of schizophrenic disorder depends on the badness and stage that a individual is in.

“Psychotic symptoms and behaviours are considered psychiatric exigencies. and individuals demoing marks of psychosis are often taken by household. friends. or the constabulary to a infirmary exigency room. A individual diagnosed as psychotic can be lawfully hospitalized against his or her will. peculiarly if he or she is violent. endangering to perpetrate self-destruction. or endangering to harm another individual. A psychotic individual may besides be hospitalized if he or she has become malnourished or ill as a consequence of failure to feed. frock suitably for the clime. or otherwise take attention of him- or herself ( freedictionary. com ) . ” Family therapy is frequently recommended for the households of schizophrenic patients. to alleviate the feelings of guilt that they frequently have every bit good as to assist them understand the patient’s upset. The manner the household Acts of the Apostless and behaves toward the household member determines the likeliness of the member being able to manage the emphasis of mundane life. Family therapy focuses on communicating and the ability to work out jobs.

Theory

Humanistic or humanitarianism is the survey of a individual as a whole. and their individualism and how they react. ”Humanism is a psychological attack that emphasizes the survey of the whole individual. Humanist psychologists look at human behaviour non merely through the eyes of the perceiver. but through the eyes of the individual making the behaving ( simplypsychology. org para2 ) . ” “Carl Rogers ( 1902-1987 ) was a humanistic psychologist who agreed with most of what Maslow believed. he added that for a individual to “grow” . they need an environment that provides them with genuineness ( openness and self- revelation ) . credence ( being seen with unconditioned positive respect ) . and empathy ( being listened to and understood ) ( simplypsychology. org para1 ) . ” “Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of demands theoretical account which can be divided into basic ( or lack ) needs ( e. g. physiological. safety. love. and esteem ) and growing demands ( cognitive. aesthetics and self-actualization ) ( simplypsychoogy. org para3 ) . ”

The lower degrees of basic demands have to be met in order for that individual to travel to the following degree of growing. One must fulfill lower degree of demands before patterned advance can be made to run into one degree has to be met in order to travel to the following. Finally the greatest degree is self-actualization. Every individual is capable and has the desire to travel up the hierarchy toward a degree of self-actualization. “Unfortunately. advancement is frequently disrupted by failure to run into lower degree demands. Life experiences including divorce and loss of occupation may do an person to fluctuate between degrees of he hierarchy. Maslow noted merely one in a 100 people become to the full self-actualized because our society wagess motive chiefly based on regard. love and other societal demands ( simplypsychology. org para3 ) . ”

“Maslow’s ( 1954 ) theory has been elaborated upon by other research workers and the original five-stage theoretical account has been adapted by other research workers who have interpreted Maslow’s Hagiographas to develop both seven and eight-stage hierarchy of demands pyramids ( simplypsychology. org para3 ) . ” “Abraham Maslow ( 1954 ) presents a hierarchy of demands theoretical account which can be divided into basic ( or lack ) needs ( e. g. physiological. safety. love. and esteem ) and growing demands ( cognitive. aesthetics and self- realization ) . One must fulfill lower degree basic needs before come oning on to run into following degree of growing demands. Once these demands have been moderately satisfied. one may be able to make the highest degree called self-actualization.

Every individual is capable and has the desire to travel up the hierarchy toward a degree of self-actualization. Progress is disrupted by failure to run into lower degree demands and life challenges and experiences. Life experiences may do a individual to travel back and Forth from one degree to another in the hierarchy. ( World Wide Web. simplypsychology. org/maslow. para3 ) . ” Maslow’s original five-stage theoretical account has been adapted by other research workers who have interpreted Maslow’s Hagiographas to develop both seven and eight-stage hierarchy of demands pyramids. “The original hierarchy of demands five-stage theoretical account includes: 1. Biological and Physiological demands – air. nutrient. drink. shelter. heat. sex. slumber. etc.

2. Safety needs – protection from elements. security. order. jurisprudence. bounds. stableness. etc.
3. Belongingness and Love needs – work group. household. fondness. relationships. etc.
4. Esteem needs – self-pride. accomplishment. command. independency. position. laterality. prestigiousness. managerial duty. etc.
5. Self-Actualization demands – recognizing personal potency. self- fulfilment. seeking personal growing and extremum experiences.


Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

“Carl Rogers believed that every individual could accomplish their ends wants. and desires in life. When they did so self-actualization took topographic point. For Rogers believed that people who are able be self-actualize. and that is non all of us. are called to the full functioning individuals. This means that the individual is in touch with the here and now. his or her subjective experiences and feelings. continually turning and altering. ” In many ways Rogers regarded the to the full working individual as an ideal and one that people do non finally achieve. It is incorrect to believe of this as an terminal or completion of life’s journey ; instead it is a procedure of ever going and altering ( simplypsychology. org para4. 5 ) . ”

Typification

Harmonizing to Best. typifying is how people construct societal jobs to be most helpful for societal work and issues covering with societal justnesss. Typification is the method of understanding why certain societal jobs are the manner they are and we make claims and topographic point accent on certain countries. but non on all countries by professionals ( Best. 1997 p. 1-12 ) . Social workers are advocators. pedagogues and counsellors ; they are support systems and employment finders every bit good. Social workers have so many functions and it is of all time altering. So. the function I would state would be to be ready for alteration and available. The function for societal work is working with households to advance and implement policy alterations for the protection of kids from ill-treatment. the aged for both wellness attention and maltreatment. adult females and other human services issues ( NASW. 2012 ) .

“According to Diana DiNitto. PhD. ACSW. a societal work professor at the University of Texas at Austin. she states that a substance-abuse societal worker’s duties vary by puting. but most perform client consumptions and appraisals. develop intervention programs. and advocate patients in single or group Sessionss. They besides help households cope with the effects of dependence and refer patients to other societal service organisations. Often. substance-abuse societal workers. who earn about $ 33. 000 a twelvemonth. function on multidisciplinary squads that can include doctors. nurses. dependence specializers and other human-services workers. “It’s more than a 9-to-5 twenty-four hours. DiNitto says. There is a batch of everyday material. but crises occur. excessively. ” Professional chances in the field abound for originative. caring societal workers interested in happening new ways to pull persons to substance-abuse intervention and in planing interventions to which clients respond ( monster. com para12 ) . ”

Mentions

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th erectile dysfunction. . revised. Washington. D. C. : American Psychiatric Association. 2000.

Anxiety upset. Retrieved from. hypertext transfer protocol: //medical-dictionary. thefreedictionary. com/anxietydisorder

Best J ( Ed ) . ( 1997 ) . Images of issues: Typifying modern-day societal jobs ( Social jobs and societal issues ) ( 2nd ed. ) New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

Bi polar. Retrieved from.
hypertext transfer protocol: //medical-dictionary. thefreedictionary. com/bipolardisorder

Depression. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //medical-dictionary. thefreedictionary. com/depression

McLeod. S. A. ( 2007 ) . [ movie ] Carl Rogers. Retrieved from [ movie ] hypertext transfer protocol: //www. simplypsychology. org/carl-rogers. hypertext markup language McLeod. S. A. ( 2007 ) . [ movie ] Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Retrieved from [ movie ] hypertext transfer protocol: //www. simplypsychology. org/maslow. hypertext markup language MentalHealth. Retrieved from. hypertext transfer protocol: //www. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. gov/mentalhealth/basics. htm

Rogers. Carl. ( 1959 ) . A Theory of Therapy. Personality and Interpersonal Relationships as Developed in the Client-centered Framework. In ( ed. ) S. Koch. Psychology: A Study of a Science. Vol. 3: Formulations of the Person and the Social Context. New York: McGraw Hill.

Schizophrenia. Retrieved from. hypertext transfer protocol: //medical-dictionary. thefreedictionary. com/Schizophernia

Definition of Substance Abuse. Retrieved on August 20. 20012 from hypertext transfer protocol: //medical-dictionary. thefreedictionary. com/Substance+Abuse+and+Dependence U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville. Mendelevium: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services ; Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Center for Mental Health Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute of Mental Health. 1999.

World Health Organization. Strengthening Mental Health Promotion. Geneva. World Health Organization ( Fact sheet no. 220 ) . 2001.

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