Stolen, Tomas et al Physiology of Soccer: An

The physiological demands for a successful professional football player

It is one of the many beauties of the athletics of football that no one physical type is indispensable to the accomplishment of competitory success. Great football players have come in a myriad of physical bundles, runing from the willowy to the compact. There are some absolute physiological restrictions imposed by heredity that are more intimidating ; a five pes two inch tall and decelerate footed jock may hold a passionate love for football, but such a build is non likely to procure a player’s entry into the Premiership. One observer expressed the importance of natural born physical traits as:

‘Is a title-holder Born or made? ‘ It ‘s the antique clean inquiry. A speedy glimpse at a assortment of elect competitions will foreground the fact that most athleticss Foster jocks with a specific organic structure type that suits that athletics. From the basic organic structure dimensions down to the familial degree, an jock ‘s physiological makeup will really frequently find their opportunity of success in any given athletics. ( Farrow, 2004, 3 )

The physiological demands built-in to the accomplishment of elite football position are rooted in the nature and demands of the athletics itself. Physical ability in any athletic enterprise has been traditionally defined by a five headed criterion – muscular strength, velocity, flexibleness, power and endurance. The best football players are non ever dominant in one or more of these facets of human public presentation because football does non demand their attainment ; the professional football player must alternatively possess a sensible capableness in each country. Elite participants are recruited with the outlook that intensive professional preparation willenhancethe bing physiological characteristics in the participant and noncreatethe property.

In any given lucifer, a football player is required to put to death a myriad of physical actions that are farther influenced by variables such as the place played by the jock, the manner of drama adopted by the squad or the opposition, climatic conditions ( peculiarly heat and humidness ) , altitude ( particularly important in many international locales e.g. Mexico and Bolivia ) , and hurt restrictions that farther influence these physiological demands.

The multi-dimensional nature of football requires that important preparation attending is paid to the development of techniques required to successfully put to death peculiar physical motions. The athletics besides has an of import tactical and determination devising constituent. These issues influence but remain distinguishable from physical public presentation.

Many of the diary beginnings referenced below assert that technique is over-emphasized in football preparation ( Hoff, 2005, 573 ; Dupont, 2004, 585 ) at the disbursal of physiological betterment that in consequence detracts from over-all football public presentation. The of import and related relationship between the physiological and psychological demands of football is besides beyond the range of this paper.

There are a battalion of physiological considerations for the professional football player ; the relationship between endurance preparation by and large and football public presentation is one illustration that illustrates this physiological connexion. Weight preparation, nutritionary factors, and stretching programmes are among others that could function as readily.

Football was normally classified as an endurance athletics until athleticss scientific discipline achieved acknowledgment as a distinguishable academic subject in the 1980s. UK research workers such as Craig Sharpe established an interface between cognition and public presentation through physiological research. The modern focal point upon improved athletics public presentation takes preparation and the athlete beyond the simple repeat of clip honoured pattern drills and scrimmages. ( Sharpe, 2005, 1 )

In football, scientific attending has focused upon a duplicate issue – what is demanded of the human organic structure in a 90 minute elect lucifer, coupled with the transition of scientific cognition to practical football applications that improve such public presentation. This research way was founded upon a wealth of empirical informations gathered as top the specific physical demands of professional football, where participants run every bit much as 10 kilometer in the class of drama. ( Stolen, 2005, 501 ) Common sense and practical observation were confirmed by scientific surveies showing that participants with a higher upper limit aerophilic power (VO2soap) screen greater distances more expeditiously during a football game. ( Edwards, 2003, 23 )

Surveies affecting participants in Japan, Europe and the UK ( Stolen, 501 ; Wisloff, 1998, 462 ; Zehnder, 2001, 443 ) contributed to the modified definition of football from an endurance athletics to that of amaximum intermittent exercising, where the participant experiences an activity alteration an norm of every 5 to 6 seconds during drama. The explosive motions of spring, sprinting ( 15 m every 90 seconds, or running one kilometer out of the 10 kilometer covered during a lucifer ( Hoff, 2005, 573 ) , and undertaking consequence in intermittent activities performed at a degree that produces a bosom rate that remains at 80 to 90 per cent of its upper limit during the full lucifer. ( Stolen, 510 )

The physiological demands of football are best satisfied when through preparation, the organic structure undergoes an adaptative procedure refering its three energy systems that support all physical activity. The ATP-PC ( adenosine triphosphate ) system supplies the energy to execute short, intense work such as dashs or leaps ( less than 10 seconds continuance ) ; anaerobiotic glycosis occurs during activity sections of between about 10 and 90 seconds ; the aerophilic system satisfies the endurance demands. During maximum intermittent exercising, all thee energy systems are required. The comparative importance of each system to football public presentation will change in conformity with the place played, developing and game conditions. ( Wilson, 2005, 1 )

Given the importance of all three energy systems to football public presentation, developing methods that generate demands upon each system are the most attractive. Interval preparation in legion pretenses is the best known and most efficient agencies of accomplishing this good physiological version. ( Stolen, 510 )

The ability of a participant to retrieve from the maximum intermittent demands of football is a important facet of overall physiological endurance preparation. In a typical hebdomad in-season, a participant may hold every bit many as three high degree lucifers, developing Sessionss, and travel that all topographic point demands upon the participant and their ability to execute at an optimum degree. A important organic structure of athleticss scientific discipline literature has developed sing the importance of hydration in the athletic recovery procedure. ( Clark, 2005, 565 ) There are spirited and ongoing academic arguments as to the type of fluids, measure of consumption and timing that best facilitate recovery. However, there seems small inquiry that for the bulk of athletics scientists, the most of import physiological factor in measuring recovery is the development of the single aerophilic capacity of the jock, stated as the shortformVO2soap.

A contrary position has been advanced by UK research workers ( Edwards, 24 ) who suggest that VO2soap indexs are non as utile to the appraisal of a professional footballer’s fittingness as is a finding of the player’s lactate threshold coupled with measuring of the player’s ventilatory threshold, that point in a period of exercising at which airing increases disproportionately to oxygen consumption. ( Edwards, 29 )

In add-on to the usage of VO2soap to find the footballer’s ability to retrieve from exercising, the relationship between the single footballer’s organic structure mass to maximum strength is a farther consideration. As noted in consideration of the five traditional headers of physical public presentation noted above, strength is non deciding of football success but it is required to a sensible grade. Wisloff ( 1998, 462 ) examined the strength / weight relationship through the survey of a big sample group of Norse professional participants. The midfielder participants possessed the highest VO2soap measurings ( between 55 and 68 milliliter / kilogram ; a healthy male under 40 old ages of age would bring forth a reading of about 40 milliliters / kilogram ) . ( Wisloff, 467 )

Wisloff besides examined the other physiological traits of the topic group. As would be expected given the demands of the places played, forwards and guardians tended to possess a higher perpendicular spring than the midfielders, a testament to greater muscular explosiveness and snap. All of the topics possessed a higher than expected ability to execute strength exercisings ; strength preparation was confirmed as an effectual football preparation government, peculiarly as it did non take away from the player’s other physiological capablenesss. ( Wisloff, 467 ; Hoff, 582 ; Murphy, 2005, 99 )

Plain and undecorated running, both as dashs and distance work, has been a fittingness tool employed in football preparation since its earliest yearss. Research, such as that conducted by Hoff ( citation ) suggests that running can be sport specific ( e.g. the incorporation of ball trickling into the running ) ) and achieve the same physiological benefits. Professional participants who were subjected to four ‘hard’ intervals of 4 proceedingss each where their mark bosom rate reached 90 to 95 per centum of their upper limit, with ‘rest’ intervals at a 70 per cent rate gained a important addition in fittingness after 3 months of preparation. ( Hoff, 582 )

The consequences observed by Hoff were confirmed in legion other tests. MacMillan ( 2005, 273 ) achieved a similar physiological betterment with a test utilizing younger jocks who completed similar 4 minute sections. In all such trials, an of import observation was made: the accent on interval preparation did non bring forth any corresponding decline or decay of other critical physiological demands in football – strength, jumping ability, and velocity.

Controversy has attached to an otherwise apparently logical decision sing the importance of interval preparation to the professional football player – given the demands of competition noted above, should these jocks continue to prosecute in high strength interval work throughout the full competitory season season?

Many athletics scientists have developed sophisticated football preparation programmes that applyperiodization of preparationrules, where in the continuum of pre-season, competitory season and station –season recovery stages, difficult interval preparation was an of import constituent of the athlete’s construct up to competition, but non regarded as a safe or utile mid-season preparation option, due to concerns sing weariness and addition hazard of hurt.

A 2004 Gallic survey ( Dupont, 2004, 584 ) affecting male professional participants concluded that in-season, high strength interval preparation conducted twice hebdomadal was of important physiological benefit. The 40 m dash times of the single participants ( a utile measurement tool for football game velocity ) were observed to be faster after mid season interval preparation, and the topic VO2soap consequences revealed additions of over 3 per centum. ( Dupont, 589 )

The betterment of public presentation through preparation directed at physiological factors as illustrated by the endurance / maximal intermittent exercising illustrations above is a dynamic procedure. If one were to purify the lessons of athleticss scientific discipline in this country to a blunt sum-up, it might be this – when preparation is directed to a specific physiological result as identified through scientific discipline ( as opposed to simple ‘practice’ ) , the greater the chances for betterment in overall football public presentation.

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