1. Employee Satisfaction degrees in association with sickness/absenteeism degrees. One of the first theoretical accounts to analyze the relationship between employee satisfaction degrees and illness and absenteeism degrees on a big graduated table was the work of Tips and Rhodes ( 1978, p. 31 ) . This survey used a reappraisal of over a 100 old surveies to reason that employee attending degrees were driven by two chief factors: the ability of the employee to go to work and their motive to go to work. Whilst the ability of the employee to work was seen as being mostly out of the control of employers, the motive to come to work was shown to be influenced by the employee ‘s degree of satisfaction with their working state of affairs, every bit good as assorted other internal and external force per unit areas to go to work. The ensuing theoretical account demonstrated that absenteeism was note entirely caused by occupation dissatisfaction, with assorted other factors lending to it, but it did supply grounds that satisfaction degrees were strongly related to absenteeism, every bit good as degrees of employee turnover. This theoretical account, and the hypothesised relationships, were subsequently examined by Watson ( 1981, p. 385 ) , who demonstrated that it was really a combination of employee satisfaction degrees, assorted personal features, and the nature of the occupation that really determined degrees of absence. This helped explicate why adult females were at the clip more absence prone than work forces, due to their different personal features and occupation types.
Another utile theoretical account which makes a valuable part to the argument around the links between satisfaction and absenteeism is the work of Nicholson ( 1977, p. 231 ) . This piece argued that the nature of absence could be explained conceptually utilizing the ‘A-B Continuum ‘ . This continuum measures the extent to which persons are able to command their absence from work. An ‘A ‘ absence event is one where the employee has no pick, such as being in a auto clang, whereas a ‘B ‘ event is one where the employee has a free pick, such as claiming to be ill whilst hung over. The consequences of this survey indicated that the likeliness of people being absent due to B type events was positively related to their motive to go to work. This provides conceptual support for the satisfaction – absence connexion claimed by Tips and Rhodes ( 1978, p. 31 ) , which is an of import measure given that Steers and Rhodes ‘ ( 1978, p. 31 ) work did non include important sums of empirical or conceptual work of its ain.
In add-on to this, a more recent survey by Schaufeli et Al ( 2009, p. 893 ) has provided support for a similar nexus between occupation satisfaction degrees and nonvoluntary ‘A ‘ type absence events. This survey used structural equation patterning analysis to show that factors which contributed to low satisfaction degrees and employee burnout, such as work overload, inordinate emotional demands, and a deficiency of liberty, were valid forecasters of employee illness continuance and frequence, with both continuance and frequence being measured against nonvoluntary absences due to serious medical conditions. Conversely, employee battle boosted satisfaction degrees and reduced the degree of nonvoluntary absence amongst employees ( Schaufeli et al, 2009, p. 893 ) .
2. Cost of sickness/absenteeism
One of the most comprehensive surveies on illness and absenteeism was commissioned in 2008 by the Department of Health and the Department for Work and Pensions in the UK ( Woolen, 2009, p. 13 ) . The survey was carried out by PwC, one of the ‘Big Four ‘ accounting houses, and aimed to find the return on investing that houses gained from advancing health programmes in order to cut down absence. The consequences of the survey indicated that a theoretical company with 1,000 employees with an mean hebdomadal pay of ?400, which is below the UK national norm, would incur entire direct costs of absence in a twelvemonth of ?1,664,000 based on an absence rate of merely 8 % . It should be noted that this survey is likely to undervalue the sum, as it merely considers the direct costs, with the indirect costs, in footings of lost productiveness and moral, being estimated to be at least dual the direct cost ( Woolen, 2009, p. 13 ) .
Another of import survey by Management Services ( 2004a, p. 7 ) investigated the entire cost in footings of direction clip needed to cover with workplace struggle direction, including issues around employees who were away ill and had to be covered for. The consequences of the survey indicated that an mean employer would lose around 450 yearss of direction clip per twelvemonth, tantamount to two full clip directors, covering with workplace struggle. Whilst this can non all be attributed to conflict associated with illness and absence, it does bespeak an extent of the graduated table of the indirect costs incurred by employers. The study besides showed that when unsolved struggles began doing employee absence degrees, they besides began doing a lower rate of productiveness, and higher than expected turnover rate, connoting that absenteeism is something that needs to be addressed as an pressing symptom of other possible effects of hapless satisfaction degrees ( Management Services, 2004a, p. 7 ) .
However, another interesting piece of research indicates that little and average sized concerns in the UK are mostly incognizant of the direct cost of illness and absence to their concern. The research indicates that about 80 % of little and medium concern proprietors in the UK have ne’er attempted to cipher the cost of absence in their company, either on an employee degree or an administration broad degree. Whilst this does non offer important utile information from the point of position of this thesis, Management Services ( 2004b, p. 5 ) argues that the overall figures indicate that around 70 % of the entire cost of absence tends to be due to long term illness, with around two million employees being out of work “ for at least six months at any clip due to sickness or disablement ” . This indicates that whilst the cost of absence discussed in the surveies above appears to be high, the bulk of any absence is due to genuine long term unwellnesss. Even in visible radiation of Schaufeli et Al ‘s ( 2009, p. 893 ) grounds that satisfaction degrees help to foretell echt unwellness degrees, this implies that satisfaction degrees are improbable to hold a major impact on overall illness costs, due to the prevalence of long term unwellnesss which are likely to be due to factors other than satisfaction.
3. Sickness/absenteeism civilizations
Attempts to understand the extent to which a illness or absentee civilization may play a function in advancing absence degrees are limited by the fact that most grounds around the being of said civilizations in extremely anecdotal. However, Brooke ‘s ( 1986, p. 354 ) extension of Steers and Rhodes ‘ ( 1978, p. 31 ) theoretical account of employee attending does supply some empirical grounds for the impact of civilization on illness and absenteeism degrees. This theoretical account indicates that the nexus between satisfaction and absenteeism is that satisfaction Acts of the Apostless to intercede behavior, specifically the inclination of a worker to act in an absentee mode. At the same clip, the behavior of the employee is besides strongly determined and mediated by assorted cultural norms. This implies that, if a workplace develops a civilization which is conformable to absenteeism, so employees in that company are more likely to see low satisfaction degrees as an alibi to take absences when they are non entirely necessary.
The possible for such a civilization to be in the UK is demonstrated in an article by Paton ( 2005, p. 5 ) which discussed the consequences of a sickness absence study carried out amongst UK employees. This study indicated that 22 % of workers admitted that they took sick leave when they could really hold been good plenty to hold gone to work if they had needed to. In add-on to this, 40 % of employees claimed that they would be less likely to take ill yearss if they would n’t be paid for those yearss. This indicates that some cultural norms in the UK may be supportive of absentee behavior. However, 58 % of respondents to the same study claimed that they were concerned by the degree of absence in their administration ( Paton, 2005, p. 5 ) , which implies that the being of such a civilization is limited, and still non supported by a bulk of employees.
4. Motivation and Morality
It is of import to see both motive and morality when trying to understand the cause of illness and absenteeism in the company. This is because motive and morality both play a cardinal function in act uponing the public-service corporation maximization determination of employees which, under conventional micro economic theory, will be the chief driver of their ultimate behavior ( Chelius, 1981, p. 409 ) . A more elaborate apprehension of this can be found by using Leibenstein ‘s ( 1976, p. 35 ) theoretical account of single pick. This theoretical account implies that the picks that persons make sing their attempt place are based on two different sorts of via media. The first is the internal moral via media between the desire to follow with recognized criterions of behavior, and the desire to behaviour in an irresponsible and unconstrained mode. The 2nd via media is the motivational via media between the hazard and possible penalty for being caught or viewed in a negative visible radiation, and the wages of being able to avoid work for a twenty-four hours. The existent behavior of each person will depend on their alone moral and motive position, and responses to their internal and external force per unit areas to act in a certain mode ( Tomer, 1981, p. 351 ) .
In add-on to the single rationalization of these places, it is of import to recognize that the two places can themselves be influenced by force per unit area on the other. In peculiar, the infliction of penalties or wagess for behavior such as absenteeism can make a moral quandary that overrides bing moral regulations ( Bell and Hughes-Jones, 2008, p. 503 ) . For illustration, if employees are promised wagess for bettering their attending, these wagess may overrule their moral jussive mood to work. They may get down to see good attending records as a high degree of public presentation, instead than as a minimal criterion to accomplish. This in bend can cut down their feelings of moral irresistible impulse to go to work, and replace them with the motivational value they place on the wages offered. If this wages is non seen as strong plenty, it may really function to cut down the degree of attending. In add-on to this, Lewis ( 1997, p. 134 ) demonstrated that directors need to be cautious when trying to utilize motivational tools, as perceptual experiences of managerial moralss affair to employees. As such, directors who use motivational tools in a manner that is non perceived as just by employees can damage employees ‘ feelings of moral duty towards the administration, once more harming attending degrees.
5. Other of import theories and theoreticians in the country
One of the other important theories in this country is societal influence theory, which argues that absence related norms in a work environment are strongly driven by societal norms and the societal individuality of the employee. This is examined by Bamberger and Biron, 2007, p. 176 ) who demonstrated “ that referent group norms significantly explain inordinate absence behavior, even when taking into history the absence norms associated with the formal organisational units within which these referent groups are frequently nested ” . This implies that the strength of the referent group norms to which each employee are subjected will hold a important impact on the degree of absenteeism displayed by that employee. However, they besides found that “ permissive referent group norms are likely to hold a greater impact on the chance of mark inordinate absence when the mark has a more conformist temperament ” ( Bamberger and Biron, 2007, p. 176 ) , which in bend indicates that the degree of absenteeism is driven by the relationship between the group norms and the single temperament, and potentially satisfaction degree.
Another of import consideration is the impact of the procedures of subject that act in any given society. This is of import because research by Haunschild ( 2003, p. 46 ) shows that wellness direction and absence decrease activities fit into the procedures of societal subject as analysed by Foucault ( 1975, p. 57 ) . Specifically, the analysis indicates that any effort by directors to cut down absence degrees will be seen in the visible radiation of its disciplinary deductions. For illustration, if a director makes it known that inordinate absenteeism may be punished by non being paid for the absentee twenty-four hours, the employee may take to come to work strictly to avoid this penalty. In this instance, they may take to be at work, but will non give more than minimum attempt to their assigned undertakings and are improbable to better productiveness. This procedure of being in work but non exposing full mental committedness may do other employees to be resentful, and could drive struggle, potentially holding even greater negative effects that the absence would hold ( Haunschild, 2003, p. 46 ) .
Indeed, theoretical work by Analoui and Kakabadse ( 1983, p. 46 ) indicates that illness and absenteeism should non be seen in isolation. Alternatively, they should be seen as portion of the overall degree of struggle at work, peculiarly behavioral looks of said struggle. Whilst the seeable signifiers of said struggle, including absenteeism but besides industrial action and employee turnover, be given to be widely studied, the less seeable signifiers such as sabotage, employee larceny and general riotous behavior tend to be ignored. As discussed above, this is unwise as any effort to clamp down on one aspect of struggle related behaviors such as absenteeism is likely to slop over into other signifiers such as turnover and riotous behavior. On this footing, Analoui and Kakabadse ( 1983, p. 46 ) claim that illness and absenteeism can merely be genuinely understood through a strong of workplace struggle, and the scope of behavioral looks that this may trip. By developing a better apprehension of these looks, faculty members and practicians will be better able to place specific symptoms of struggle, and turn to the symptoms by deciding the implicit in struggle, instead than merely handling the narrow symptoms and neglecting to decide the root cause.