Scarcity of potable water


Drinkable H2O has come to be a luxury that many in developed states take for granted on a day-to-day footing. This cardinal component that is indispensable to life flows freely through pipes in our houses, schools, topographic points of employment, and virtually everyplace we go. This is unluckily this is non the instance for the remainder of the universe, particularly in states in the 3rd universe that are developing and without equal planning to turn to some or the poorness concerns, peculiarly when it comes to clean drinkable H2O which is really difficult to come by, particularly in the most waterless of rural parts. As universe population additions and development calls for increased allotments of groundwater and surface H2O for the agribusiness, domestic, and industrial sectors, the demand for this resource has progressively been intensified and has going one of the most urgent issues that the Earth faces today. This is most apparent in the Africa, where utmost poorness even furthers worsen the already desperate issue of drinkable H2O scarceness particularly in rural countries. In Africa, 340 million people or shut to half the continent ‘s populations lives on less than one US dollar a twenty-four hours ( Murithi, 2005 ) , and therefore hold really small capital to pass on clean purified H2O taking many to imbibe contaminated H2O from local lakes, watercourses, pools, and rivers doing 1000s to fall sick with some taking to decease due to H2O borne unwellnesss such as cholera, typhoid febrility, and dysentery. This paper will place this pressing issue of drinkable H2O scarceness in rural Ghana ( one of the hardest hit countries of H2O borne double daggers based on the ingestion of inadequately treated H2O ) . Besides this paper will in item lineation a proposed undertaking scheme to relieve this issue in the specified country of rural Ghana ( Savelugu ) , the possible and ability of what the undertaking can help in, every bit good as explicate how the assorted stages and particulars of the undertaking like budgeting that will guarantee or demo most possible for success. In making this rural based H2O public-service corporation undertaking we hope non merely to assist relieve cholera and guinea-worm interruption outs that are really common to the country, we besides hope that this public-service corporation will be the beginning of exciting economic development in the part by pulling investors, and supplying occupations for the local community and fueling the agricultural market in the country.


Water is the universe ‘s most abundant resource covering about 70 % of the full Earth ‘s surface. Yet, as antecedently mentioned there are still countries on the Earth that have really hapless entree to this critical resource that is critical for prolonging life and therefore hold suffered many unfortunate effects of non holding an equal drinkable H2O beginning ensuing from a deficiency of equal planning. About one fifth of the universe ‘s population ( about 1.2 billion people ) lives in countries where the H2O is physically scarce. One one-fourth of the planetary population besides live in developing states that face H2O deficits due to a deficiency of substructure to bring H2O from rivers and aquifers.

Ghana ‘s Struggle with Water Scarcity

As a microcosm of the universe ‘s drinkable H2O scarceness issues, Ghana likewise has 70 % of its entire population missing entree to clean, piped imbibing H2O. The state of affairs in Ghana has improved in recent old ages as we have seen more growing and development of Ghana ‘s 2 major metropoliss Accra, which is the capital, and Kumasi. Over the last 10 twelvemonth the Ghanese authorities has been pressured by the World Bank and the IMF to privatise its public H2O system in hopes of making 1000s of occupations to assist bolster the economic system and most significantly deriving private investors involved in the procedure and therefore raising capital that would travel towards mend the H2O supply systems in the urban countries of Ghana with an accent on bettering the service for the hapless who live in urban countries. The issue with this denationalization push is that it does non use to rural countries and lone encompasses urban H2O, and therefore making a nothingness between urban and rural communities who every bit need a drinkable H2O beginning with the rural countries holding a under funded public company called Ghana Water Company Ltd to provide to the demands to the rural community. Resistance to the denationalization and advocates of this enterprise including the World Bank all agree that a via media must be me to better function the rural countries of Northern Ghana, which is in desperate demand of clean H2O, but yet and still the parties involved have non come to an understanding with the Ghanese authorities caught lazily in the center which exemplify the assorted dimensions and aspects of this issue.

Savelugu in Perspective

The town of Savelugu in Northern Ghana is the proposed site for this undertaking to take topographic point and is one of the hardest hit countries the state and harmonizing to UNICEF statistics was the most Guinea worm-endemic community in Ghana in 2006. In add-on to typhoid, cholera, and guinea worm being atop of the list of medical concerns that the town faces, a survey conducted by the “ The Lancet ” , universe ‘s prima medical diaries, research workers tested 2,501 people in Savelugu from 2004 to 2005, and found 19.5 per centum had the worms that cause river sightlessness. This provides an ideal location based on the desperate state of affairs of the town and part for the propose drinkable H2O public-service corporation undertaking which would function as the regional or provincial clean H2O beginning with the town of Savelugu which has a population of 29,000 people holding first precedence. A squad of contrivers have already been sent in front of the undertaking to roll up mass informations on Savelugu and the part which encompasses with paying a great trade of attending to the topography, undertaking feasibleness, and population demographic with the aid of the Ghanese authoritiess assorted ministries and have sent back critical information needed to adequately fix for the full range of the undertaking. Harmonizing to their study the undertaking will impact and impact over an estimated 75,000 people with Savelugu accounting for 38 % of the sum ( 29,000 ) and histories for the adjacent towns such as Morla, Pong-Tamale, and Kanshegaw. The clime of the part is comparatively dry, with a individual rainy season that begins in May and ends in October. The sum of rainfall recorded yearly varies between 750 millimeters and 1050 millimeter. The dry season starts in November and ends in March/April with maximal temperatures happening towards the terminal of the dry season ( March-April ) and minimal temperatures in December and January. The town of Savelugu consists of largely subsistence husbandmans, with a individual market where goods are bough and traded.

Consequences of Project Implementation/Inaction

If executed decently this undertaking has the potency to better the quality of life for 1000s and besides and excite the local economic system by non merely making occupations at the H2O intervention works, but besides in the constitutions and substructures which may look after this betterments have taken affect ( we see this is economic systems of agglomeration, where in this instance we may see a H2O shrieking company locate to function the H2O intervention works ) . This type of undertaking would be something that Francis Owusu, whom we read in the sence that it would fulfill his call for multiple support schemes. The State of Ghana as a whole would profit from this undertaking ‘s execution, but it will be felt on a direct degree largely by the dwellers of Savelugu and the environing countries, with the Ghanese authorities peculiarly the Ministry Of Water Resources, Works & A ; Housing being indirect donees. In add-on to the authorities, the World Bank curiously would besides indirectly benefit from the undertaking, in that the resistance that have trawled many progresss in their denationalization contract with the Ghanese authorities based on disenfranchisement of the rural populations will be appeased by the new development. Inversely, the effects of non-action are lay waste toing go forthing several 1000s ill and potentially dead within a really short term or clip period due to the absolute necessity of drinkable H2O, with a foreseeable rebellion and protest of the authorities that could take to civil agitation in the long term.


The undertaking seeks to relieve many of the wellness concerns every bit good as the overall low life criterions and conditions that most of the population is in. By concentrating on supplying equal H2O to the thickly settled, it is the thought or aim behind the undertaking that the criterion of life, wellness, and income will besides better. The H2O provided by the H2O intervention works will be available to the town and part distributed through a web of pipes that will either be shared by local homes/businesses or go the exclusive belongings of places and or concerns based on the ability to pay the H2O public-service corporation measure. The money accumulated by payments of the H2O public-service corporation measure will so travel on to assist prolong the undertaking and assist fund the fix of any necessary parts that are critical to the intervention procedure. Through the installing of the undertaking it is the vision of the contrivers to see an addition in local concerns and associated industries and therefore increasing the employment rate and one-year income. By bettering the cleanliness and the sum of H2O generated, we will see an addition in the sum of agribusiness produced based on more handiness of H2O for irrigational intents and there for we will see a more stirred agricultural market in the part and perchance make a strong adequate market for exports to other parts of Ghana. Improved wellness attention will take to a bead in infant mortality, and may do a population addition in the part that will farther make the market for more employment in the agribusiness and non-agricultural sectors. Progress will be monitored and tract by a taking assorted study of famers harvest output every bit good relevant nose count informations that trades with income and employment every bit good analyzing the figure of water-borne infirmary or clinic instances that we predict will be on the diminution based on the undertakings deduction. These end products are most decidedly executable if certain cardinal premises of the undertaking are able to adhered to, one of them being that there must a strong sense of community engagement and engagement due to the simple fact that when the undertaking developers leave the local and national authorities would be the 1s running and prolonging the undertaking, which is particularly of import as many will come to trust on the continuation of the H2O public-service corporation. There must be a duologue with local leaders, community organisers, civil society and adult females ‘s groups in the planning, operation, and length of service of the undertaking. Yet another cardinal premise is that the donees of this H2O service country really able to pay for it on a monthly footing given that fact that the town and part are under enormous poorness and there is small expendable income already available. There will besides hold to be some work force preparation which may affect conveying in foreign experts and technicians to ease preparation Sessionss and lead infrastructural sub-projects. There is so a strong correlativity between bettering H2O for ingestion and bettering the support of the population, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. “ Water-related investings can profit supports and lend cut downing poorness in rural countries. ” ( FAO/IFAD “ Report Water and the Rural Poor ” 2008 )

Design Overview

The undertaking as a whole is comprised of three separate but inter-related stages of development that need to be at the focal point of the undertaking ‘s design. The first facet being the initial planning and puting down of societal substructure needed for the H2O intervention to carry through its intents such a work force preparation, secondly the really edifice and building of the works itself and associated piping, and 3rd stage of making societal and physical transitional substructure, which will affect the integrating local leading and authorities proprietor of the works for full sustainability intents one time the undertaking bureau moves out. These three stages at times will happen at the same time but will affect deep degrees of local engagement which in bend helps derive a sense of ownership and belong that is critical to success of the program. There must besides be a list of agenda events with the appropriate start day of the month, continuance, and terminal day of the month.

List of Scheduled Tasks

Set-Up Planning Office-2 hebdomads
Mobilize Planning Team-3 hebdomads
Discuss Problems-7 hebdomads
Identify Goals and Objectives-3 hebdomads
Discuss Limitations-5 hebdomads
Review demographics of town and region-3 hebdomads
Meet with Planning Committee Weekly-200 hebdomads
Meet with Government Liaison Weekly-200 hebdomads
Field Work Data Collection-3 hebdomads
Topographical Terrain Research-6 hebdomads
Search for Ideal Location-3 hebdomads
Check with NGOs active in the area-4 hebdomads
Preliminary Sketch and Design-2 hebdomad
Town Hall Meetings ( Listening ) -5 hebdomads
Present Plan to local community-1 hebdomad
Feedback Session-1 hebdomad
Alteration of Plan-3 hebdomads
Interview/Survey local residents-10 hebdomads
Determine Water Need-2 hebdomads
Establish H2O quality standards for project-2 hebdomads
Discuss H2O public-service corporation Price-5 hebdomads
Work Force Training-12 hebdomads
Higher Corp Of Engineers -3 hebdomads
Construction of Plant-163 hebdomads
Puting of Pipe Network -142 hebdomads
Survey of population-10 hebdomads

Bottlenecks & A ; Constraints and Methods of Relief

During the undertaking design part of the undertaking certain issues may originate and may present somewhat of an obstruction for the undertaking planning squad. In this peculiar undertaking the cardinal restraint is sustainably and the demand for funding one time the giver bureau term has ended. Yet another concern is how good the local community takes to the undertaking and its propinquity to a given country as opposed to another, the last thing that is needed is civil agitation and claims of neighborhood favouritism in taking a location for the works. Besides refering to the site, consensus must be made about the site location to do certain that it does n’t destroy peculiar cultural savings and landmark ( Savelugu is historical country in Ghana for its function in the slave trade ) Another trouble will originate in the interview and overall interaction with the local community who may non welcome non-native peoples to their well preserved civilization and local country. Language is another barrier that must be crossed and a transcriber will hold to be present during all proceedings with the native population every bit good as in preparation Sessionss. Method of relieving these bottlenecking constrains will be addressed in farther detain in the undermentioned description of the undertaking design stages.

Phase 1: Preliminary Infrastructure and Planning

This facet of the undertaking design is particularly of import in puting out the cardinal foundation of the initial planning of the program. A strong individual line of communicating that must be evident in the planning stage between the undertaking director, ( who will be appointed by the planning/donor bureau and who ‘s responsibilities will be outlined with more item subsequently ) , the “ planning commission ” that consist of local and regional leading, local concern proprietors and possible investors in the undertaking, and last but non least the Ghanese authorities, who will be represented by a affair who stay in communicating with the associated ministries. This is the stage when mobilisation of the undertaking takes topographic point with an huge trade of informations aggregation and planning will take topographic point. The undertaking manage along with his squad will discourse the possible undertaking restrictions and associated jobs every bit good as study the topography of the land for an ideal location for the site. The undertaking squad must besides run into with local leaders and villagers and must finally show the proposed undertaking to the town in a town hall meeting. There will besides be room for a feedback clip to do any necessary alterations to the undertaking. A critical portion of this stage will be the conductivity of studies and interviews of the people of the town and environing towns to find which house-holds can afford the monthly H2O public-service corporation fee to calculate out the physical demand for H2O and to find the planning of the H2O grid piping.

Phase 2: Construction of the Water Treatment Utility Plant

The existent building of the H2O intervention works is set to get down in September of 2010 and non be completed till 2014. This stage will take the longest clip due to the sheer magnitude of the works and necessary H2O shrieking networking. This will necessitate a crew of applied scientists to be able to plan and build the works in the most efficient mode possible. A main applied scientist will be contracted to head the building procedure and will describe back to undertaking mode for updates that assess advancement. Once built the H2O intervention works will be ran and operated by the works caput that will hold under his direction H2O scientist to guarantee the quality of the H2O that is treated. The beginning of the untreated H2O can come from a broad assortment of topographic points such as rainwater aggregation armored combat vehicles, near-by lakes and watercourses, but the primary beginning will be the White Volta River which is 29.4 kilometer off from Savelugu. Water will be collected by trucks equip with H2O pumps and armored combat vehicles that will so be transported back to the works and deposited into the system that infuses the untreated H2O with assorted chemical and filtrated through a series or procedures and so one purified will eventually be pumped through the series of web pipes to be used as a shared vicinity pipe between family who together pay the H2O public-service corporation or for private usage for those who are able to afford it. The twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours none-technical operations will be performed by trained local staff that will be paid monthly.

Phase 3: Social and Physical Transitional Infrastructure for Sustainability

This stage is the most critical phase of sustainability edifice and will be conducted over the life of the undertaking every bit far as the giver bureau is concern. It is necessary in this undertakings design to construct in assorted stairss and steps to guarantee full sustainability and ownership one time to bureau ‘s term has been expired. By incorporating local forces who are promoted over-time based on model public presentation in the direction sector of the works to high places will do the H2O intervention works even more sustainable based on the fact that local employees are familiar with the direction and operation of the installation and associated parts of the system. Equally far as support is concerned, as the part becomes more comfortable as a consequence to the works, public-service corporation monetary values will increase to assist do up for the one-year support that will be no longer present by the giver. The Ghanese authorities must take the primary function in funding the undertaking and subsidising the H2O for the people and concerns of the part every bit good as paying the wages of the full and portion clip staff of the installation. The works itself will go to a big extent a trade good that we hope investors will purchase stock in to assist have net incomes from by leting pecuniary gifts to be revenue enhancement deductable permitted by the authorities of Ghana. NGOs such as the UN ‘s FAO, IFAD and other associated bureaus will be encouraged to assist fund the undertaking in the undermentioned 5 old ages after initial support term has ended and therefore making a smooth passage for a to the full sustainable locally/governmentally owned and operated H2O intervention works.

The Organizational Structure and Internal Methodology

For this undertaking to win and prolong the people that will come to depend on its being, a strong construction is needed to keep critical facets in topographic point. At the top of the construction are three separate but every bit polar entities ; the undertaking trough, a council/committee dwelling of donees and interest, and of class the Ghanese authorities who has a vested involvement in supplying for its people. These three must all work together and a consecutive line of communicating must be between them.

Under the undertaking director are the works director, who ‘s responsibility it is to supervise the twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours operations of the installation and the main applied scientist or caput of building whose occupation it will be to supervise the twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours advancement of the initial edifice and building of the installation. These two places under the undertaking trough are cardinal and critical to the success of the full undertaking and their dialoged of communicating back to the undertaking director is of high importance, particularly with the building trough as far a clip is concerned. Under the caput of building are his building crew which consist of local ( to minimise costs ) specialized workers from the local country, and twenty-four hours labourers who will besides be comprised of less skill workers to assist out with most of the pes work and non proficient constructional patterns. Underneath the works trough we have the caput H2O specializer and his squad of technicians who operate the machinery and run the assorted procedures that are needed to sublimate and handle H2O, every bit good as the care staff in the event of a malfunction or a demand for equipment replacing.

The 2nd cardinal constituent as listed above is the commission that consist of donees every bit good as interest holders in the undertaking, the intent of this committee is to discourse the assorted schemes that can be utilized by community leaders and local concern to maximise the effectivity of undertaking and ways to gain monetarily to excite the local economic system. This organic structure would besides function as the beginning of information or a line of communicating from the undertaking to the local community from a drip down attack of go throughing recent developments and pertinent issues through local leading in the Savelugu country. Third the Ghanese authorities must be a portion the undertakings substructure in order for the undertaking to win, this entity has the most to derive based on the simple fact that they must adequately supply for their population. The use of informations and resources from the assorted ministries such as the ministry of water/public plants every bit good the ministry of wellness is critical to understanding the demographic that and the capacity of the undertaking sustainability. For illustration if through looking at nose count informations, if we see that the Savelugu country starts to turn at an dismaying rate due to a rise in quality of life, that might be correlated to the undertaking or the economic development that stems from it, the undertaking might desire to do preempted steps to spread out the capablenesss and increase the production to run into the demands to a turning population.


A undertaking of this magnitude will necessitate the full fiscal support of both the giver bureau and Ghanese authorities. The undermentioned budget is a line by elaborate budget that will cover building cost, forces cost, one-year operation cost, and equipment cost. A budget a glimpse chart and graph has been provided in the appendix subdivision of the proposal

Line Item Budget

Construction Costss

Land Leases-Facility Site – $ 5,000

Partss and Materials:

500 dozenss of cement- $ 200,000
500 steel beams- $ 400,000
600 stat mis of Piping- $ 450,000
Electricity Grid- $ 375,000

Construction Machinery Rental for continuance of building

Crane- $ 75,000
Fork Lift- $ 25,000
2 big shit trucks- $ 35,000
Set Power Tools- $ 8,000
2 Dump Trucks etc.- $ 15,000

The existent building stage presents one of the most dearly-won facets of the undertaking but is evidently critical for its success. The land rental for the given country will be covered by the Ghanese authorities as an in-kind gesture of good will so that cost is negated from the sum. As for the existent labour, there will be a crew of 25 local building workers, with a head of building who will be brought in from the international community to supervise the procedure. As opposed to purchasing all the big building equipment, the superintendents of the undertaking found it more cost effectual to lease these machineries.

Annual Operational Costs TOTAL- $ 447,000

Power- ( 2 gas powered generators ) – $ 10,000
Sludge Disposal- $ 2,000
Labor- $ 300,000
Partss and Materials- $ 60,000
Chemicals- $ 8,000
Equipment Replacement Fund- $ 65,000
Testing/Monitoring- $ 2,000

The operating cost once the site has been constructed has been inflated somewhat so that we are able to acquire the high estimations for these assorted cost. The power that the H2O intervention works will trust on will come from 2 big generators which are fueled by gasolene. The $ 10,000 monetary value ticket for operating on factors in the cost of gas to power the generators for one twelvemonth, non the generators themselves which will be covered in the equipment part of the budget. Other cost for runing the installation include the parts and stuff every bit good as the chemicals necessary for the H2O to be decently treated and processed, these points will all be imported from Europe.

With any H2O intervention works, there are evidently several proficient parts and equipment needed to execute the undertaking of decently handling the H2O. The above list are all the equipment needed that are found in most H2O intervention workss that are presently functional in the United States and abroad and stand for the minimum demands of runing a legitimate and safe H2O intervention works. $ 1.5 is the sum for all the equipment including the cost of the linkages of the parts listed supra.

Forces Cost ( Annual ) – $ 350,000 Sum

Management Labor

Project Manager/Overseer- $ 50,000
Plant Manager- $ 45,000
Head of Construction $ 40,000
Project Liaison- $ 10,000 ( Co-paid by Ghana Gov )

Construction Labor Cost

Head of Construction/Industrial Engineer- $ 45,000
Corp of Construction workers ( 20 domestic workers ) – $ 50,000 ( $ 2500 each )

Technical Staff & A ; Labor

Head Water Science Specialist- $ 45,000
Water Technician/Staff- $ 30,000
Care Staff ( 5 ) – $ 35,000 ( $ 7,000 each )

Evaluation and Monitoring Plan

Throughout the life of the undertaking there will be several series of study and interviews to supervise and detail advancement. Prior to the undertakings execution informations will be gather by random sampling of house-holds with a strong focal point criterion of life, criterion of wellness, income and other cardinal demographics that country associated with the support of people in the part. A 2nd unit of ammunition of study ( mid-term ) will be performed after the first 2 old ages of the undertaking, and a 3rd unit of ammunition of the same study capturing the same information. By making so, we in kernel have a longitudinal of a bunch group that we can track and supervise their betterments or deficiency thereof as a direct consequence of the undertakings execution. It is besides of import to observe that there may be a bead off in the overall criterion of life as the giver bureau moves in, and if we notice any slumps after the 5 twelvemonth initial backup of the undertaking we can see where precisely the lacking point is and therefore hold an accomplishable end to work towards. Equally far as health care in concerns, the undertaking will keep a strong line of communicating with the ministry of heath who will tract the figure of H2O borne unwellnesss and double daggers overtime to see if there are any possible decreases that show the accomplishment of facet of the undertakings aims


So now that we have clearly stated the job which we hope to relieve, highlighted the badness of this issue, given an initial undertaking design, explored its deductions and the range of the parties and demographic involved, every bit good as outlined the full budget for the undertaking, it is clear to see that this undertaking is one that has the possible to impact non merely a domestic part, but a state as a whole. It is my hope that a proposal will be accepted by any possible Nongovernmental organization or possible planning organisation and performed to the criterion of which it was planned, with the engagement from the donees on a high degree on the ladder as we discussed in category ( non conciliation ) . This desperate demand has to be met with an aggressive program that can salvage the lives of the people involved. Though this undertaking requires a big sum of capital support, it is good worth the cost when the value of the 1000s of lives that this undertaking could salvage is factored into to the bottom line. Furthermore, with the rise of globalisation and increase function of urban metropoliss, we can non bury about the rural countries which as we have read in Cecilia Tacoli ‘s work which clearly outlines the nexus between the urban and rural development, and at times even fuels the urban sector as is the instance as a really big sum or the agricultural merchandises are generated in the rural countries, particularly coco and lumber which are two of Ghana ‘s chief exports. If this undertaking lives to its full potency, the possibility of reproduction for similar countries particularly in sub-Saharan Africa will be really likely.


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