Interaction WITH ENVIRONMENT The earliest civilisations formed on fertile river fields. These lands faced challenges. such as seasonal implosion therapy and a limited turning country.
Geography What rivers helped prolong the four river vale civilisations?
Power AND AUTHORITY Projects such as irrigation systems required leading and laws—the beginnings of organized authorities. In some societies. priests controlled the first authoritiess. In others. military leaders and male monarchs ruled.
Geography Look at the clip line and the map. In which imperium and river valley country was the first codification of Torahs developed?
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Early civilisations developed bronze tools. the wheel. the canvas. the plough. authorship. and mathematics. These inventions spread through trade. wars. and the motion of peoples.
Geography Which river valley civilisation was the most stray? What
factors contributed to that isolation?
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Why do communities
The crop has failed and. like many others. you have small to eat. There are animate beings in the temple. but they are protected by jurisprudence. Your cousin decides to steal one of the hogs to feed his household. You believe that Torahs should non be broken and seek to carry him non to steal the hog. But he steals the hog and is caught.
The jurisprudence of the Babylonian Empire—Hammurabi’s Code—holds people responsible for their actions. Person who steals from the temple must refund 30 times the cost of the stolen point. Because your cousin is unable to pay this mulct. he is sentenced to decease. You begin to inquire whether there are times when Torahs should be broken.
1 The Babylonian swayer
accompanied by his
Mummar to decease.
2 A Scribe records the
proceedings against Mummar.
3 Mummar pleads for clemency.
EXAM I N I NG
the ISSU ES
• What should be the chief intent of Torahs: to advance good behaviour or to penalize bad behaviour?
• Do all communities need a system of Torahs to steer them?
Keep a category argument on these inquiries. As you prepare for the argument. believe about what you have leaned about the alterations that take topographic point as civilisations grow and become more complex. As you read about the growing of civilisation in this chapter. see why societies developed systems of Torahs.
28 Chapter 2
City states in Mesopotamia
ENVIRONMENT The earliest
civilisation in Asia arose in
Mesopotamia and organized
into city states.
WHY IT MATTERS NOW
The development of this
civilisation reflects a colony
form that has occurred
repeatedly throughout history.
TERMS & A ; NAMES
• city state
Puting THE STAGE Two rivers flow from the mountains of what is now
Turkey. down through Syria and Iraq. and eventually to the Persian Gulf. Over six thousand old ages ago. the Waterss of these rivers provided the lifeblood that allowed the formation of farming colonies. These grew into small towns and so metropoliss.
Geography of the Fertile Crescent
A desert clime dominates the landscape between the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean Sea in Southwest Asia. Yet within this dry part lies an discharge of land that provided some of the best agriculture in Southwest Asia. The region’s curved form and the profusion of its land led bookmans to name it the Fertile Crescent. It includes the lands confronting the Mediterranean Sea and a field that became known as Mesopotamia ( MEHS•uh•puh•TAY•mee•uh ) . The word in Grecian agencies “land between the rivers. ”
The rivers bordering Mesopotamia are the Tigris ( TY•grihs ) and Euphrates ( yoo•FRAY•teez ) . They flow southeastward to the Persian Gulf. ( See the map on page 30. ) The Tigris and Euphrates rivers flooded Mesopotamia at least one time a twelvemonth. As the floodwater receded. it left a thick bed of clay called silt. Farmers planted grain in this rich. new dirt and irrigated the Fieldss with river H2O. The consequences were big measures of wheat and barley at harvest clip. The excesss from their crops allowed small towns to turn.
and Solutions Use a
chart to place Sumer’s
and their solutions.
Environmental Challenges People foremost began to settle and farm the level. boggy lands in southern Mesopotamia before 4500 B. C. Around 3300 B. C. . the people called the Sumerians. whom you read about in Chapter 1. arrived on the scene. Good dirt was the advantage that attracted these colonists. However. there were three disadvantages to their new environment.
• Unpredictable implosion therapy combined with a period of small or no rain. The land sometimes became about a desert.
• With no natural barriers for protection. a Sumerian small town was about defenceless.
• The natural resources of Sumer were limited. Building stuffs and other necessary points were scarce.
Early on River Valley Civilizations 29