I have chosen to concentrate my essay on lone parents and poorness. Lone parents are a turning group in Great Britain and elsewhere, and one with high rates of poorness and reception of societal aid. This paper will analyze the current Government ‘s policy aims and their vision that it is right to anticipate people to do every attempt to acquire themselves ready for work, every bit good as raising outlooks within society.
employment, or employment on low net incomes ( Millar and Ridge 2001 ) . This means that many lone parents have to trust on province benefits which are frequently set at low degrees.
To this list we might besides add low rates of having child support from ex-partners ( the male parent of any kids ) , and comparatively low rates of child support even among those having any ( Marsh et al 2001 ) . It is widely accepted that poorness is a effect of lone parentage. But poorness is itself besides a cause of lone parentage, peculiarly for individual ( never-married ) lone female parents.
In old old ages in Britain lone parents with kids below the ages of 16 had a right to seek paid work or non without any hazard of countenances from the Government or other Government organic structures ( Rafferty and Wiggan, 2011 ) . This was farther pointed out by by the Freud Review ( 2007 ) of the public assistance to work commissariats every bit good as the green paper on public assistance reform published in the same twelvemonth – In work, better off: following stairss to full employment.
This was seen as a critical stage in the development of societal poilicies within the country, it saw a new societal understanding and position that sought to reenforce lone parents ‘ oblihations to seek paid work ( Department for Work and Pensions 2007 ) .
The subsequent December 2007 White Paper, Ready for work: full employment in our coevals, while admiting that many respondents to the Green Paper did non back up the proposal to necessitate lone parents to seek work on the footing that they should be able to take to remain place to look after their kids full-time, pointed towards grounds of the negative long-run effects for parents and kids of long-run economic inaction.
Under the old labour Government, lone parents with a kid under 16 who were non in full-time work could claim Income Support. However, from November 2008 most solitary parents with a youngest kid aged 12 or over were no longer eligible for Income Support. Those deemed able to work were alternatively able to claim Jobseeker ‘s Allowance, provided they were ‘available for and actively seeking work ‘ .
The age threshold for the youngest kid was so increasingly lowered, so that by October 2010 most solitary parents with a youngest kid aged seven or over were capable to the JSA government and this was further extended in the Budget 2010 to those whose who ‘s youngest dependent kid being i¬?ve or over ( Great Britain, Parliament, Her Majesty ‘s Treasury, 2010 ) .
The Government ‘s purposes are for those who find work to profit from higher income and improved well-being. They are committed to halving child poorness by 2010-11 and on the manner to eliminating it by 2020. Presently there are 2.9 million kids populating in poorness. In add-on to doing households better away, paid work has other of import benefits including bettering the wellness and wellbeing and future chances of both parents and kids.
There are besides financial benefits behind the idealisms, with a lower benefit burden the Government estimates that this policy alteration will impact about 100,000 individual parents in 2011 and do economy of ?380m between 2011 and 2015 ( Tickle, 2010 ) there is besides broad societal additions with decreased grownup and kid poorness through increased employment ( DWP, 2008 ) .
Lone parents feel that their concerns have been disregarded ; that being a parent is a full clip occupation and there are deficient flexible, ‘family friendly ‘ occupations available ( Woods, 2011 ) . Gordon ( 2002 ) stated that there was an uncertainness about how to acquire benefits reinstated rapidly if a occupation did non work out good for the lone parent and it was another barrier in the manner of seeking employment every bit good as the loss of Housing Benefit and alterations in their Working Tax Credit.
This is reinforced by the Policy Studies Institute ( 1997 ) which found that many out of work lone parents say they are unable to take paid occupations, even if they could happen low-cost child care and the biggest ground given was that their kids were excessively immature and needed their female parent at place.
On 26 October 2009 Gingerbread published a study, Signing on Steping up? Single parents ‘ experience of traveling on to Jobseeker ‘s Allowance, which presented the findings from a qualitative survey based on interviews with 34 lone parents both before and after their move to JSA, carried out between January and August 2009.
Before the move, parents expected to experience under considerable force per unit area to happen work one time they were on JSA. Once they were on JSA many parents did so experience under force per unit area and some were using for occupations that would non truly be suited. In general the addition in force per unit area was non accompanied by more support to happen a occupation ; one time on JSA many parents said that they had non had any support or advice about occupation runing apart from hurried biweekly sign-on assignments.
Many parents said that they felt the Jobseeker ‘s Allowance is more stigmatised than Income Support, and parents felt abashed about subscribing on at the Jobcentre. The alteration to fortnightly payments besides was really unpopular and caused jobs for many parents.
There was grounds that parents are non acquiring plenty clear information about the alteration to JSA. Some parents did non cognize good in progress when their benefits would alter, others were worried that their JSA might be stopped if they did n’t happen work, and many did non understand the conditions and flexiblenesss around JSA.
Many of these parents had wellness conditions or other duties that would do it hard for them to work, and many had kids with wellness issues or jobs at school. Channel 4 News ( 2011 ) broadcast this as the new public assistance reforms for individual parents coming into force, and that lone parents are being set up to neglect by the new proposals. ( Gingerbread, 2011 ) .
Gordon went on to province that older policies that had been pushed through and pursued by the Conservatives in the 80 ‘s and 90 ‘s had resulted in a big addition in low-income families and households. This merely changed when New Labour came to power in 1997 – they changed way and focused their policies on doing work wage by making a livable minimal pay and a public assistance political orientation within society, which emphasised the importance of maternal attention.
They created the ‘making work wage ‘ scheme which they hoped would in the long term lower the Numberss of people, including lone parents, who were welfare dependent. It was aimed at all groups who were seen as vulnerable and enduring under the older system and was particularly helpful to lone parents as it included increased financially supported child care and a specific ‘New Deal ‘ which started after the 1997 election.
The trade was a voluntary programme which offered aid and support for lone parents who wished to return to work or do an effort to make so. It included occupation hunt support and the preparation needed, along with personal support, to assist lone parents try to set and fix for the passage to work – nevertheless one of the defects that developed was that there was limited chances for the preparation amongst lone parents.
Government policies that are designed to assist vulnerable groups, including lone parents, acquire back into the on the job environment and cut down the degrees of poorness within society ‘could had a profoundA difference and alter the quality of life for solitary parent households. ‘ ( Gregg, Harkness and Smith, 2007 )
It is obvious that Social Workers must be cognizant of lone paretns and their day-to-day battle with poorness and employment. It is a ‘current and large issue within socieity and poorness is a cardinal and defining characteristic in the lives of many service users ‘ . ( Cunningham & A ; Cunningham, 2008 )
They go farther by statting that sociology is a cardinal constituent and accomplishment for Social Workers to larn and understand so that they can utilize it in their pattern to under trap the Codes of Practice set Forth by the General Social Care Council. The same codifications that province that all Social Worker ‘s must hold appropriate cognition and accomplishments to supply societal attention and maintain those accomplishments and knowledge up to day of the month. ( GSCC, 2002 )
Reducing public assistance dependence for lone parents could ensue in decreased public assistance outgo and maximised employment rates along with ‘improved socio-political impact for adult females nevertheless the fiscal inducements for work has to be substantial and sustainable to cut down the hazard of in-work poorness ‘ . ( Knijn, Martin and Millar, 2007 ) .
Finch et Al ( 2004 ) suggested that a deficiency of good child care was one of the important barriers to the authoritiess target to increase the solitary parent employment rate to 70 % by 2010.
In the budget reference of 2010, George Osborne stated that the authorities expects lone parents to look for work when their youngest kid goes to school. These changesA were so implemented on 25 October 2010 and affected lone parents ‘ claiming income support.
The Job Seekers Allowance Regulations 2010 besides changed the policy excessively doing it that one time kids are of full clip school age, parents who are able to work and are claiming benefits should be expected to look for paid work to back up themselves and their household.
Gingerbread, is still naming on the Coalition Government toA ‘implement programs to enable all employees to use for flexible working, to guarantee all occupations in the populace sector are offered on a part- clip or flexible footing andA introduce a right to paid parental leave to assist parents cover with clip off when kids are ill. ‘ ( Ahrends, 2009 )
Ahrends goes onto province that David Cameron, Gordon Brown and Nick Clegg wholly pledged to dispute bias against individual parents in 2010 and the freshly elected Coalition Government farther stated that it was committed to presenting flexible working for all and launched a taskforce on kids and households. Unfortunately 9 months subsequently this same authorities has scraped ordinances and introduced new 1s which came into force April 2011 as portion of a bundle of steps to cut down bureaucratism for concerns.
It means houses with fewer than 10 employees from all new “ ruddy tape ” for three old ages as it subjects 21,000 pieces of ordinance to an audit by the populace. ( Stratton and Wintour, 2011 ) This will see a shelving of the right to bespeak flexible working for parents with kids under 17 which will use to all houses, non merely little 1s. It will besides trash the right to bespeak clip for preparation and instruction toward uninterrupted professional development.
Single parents frequently want to work, but happening occupations to suit around the school twenty-four hours is really hard ; as is happening and paying for suited good quality child care before and after the school twenty-four hours. ( Freegard, 2010 ) . It is besides of import to observe that household friendly ‘ occupations are still far excessively rare despite the Government necessitating 100,000 individual parents to seek work in 2011. ( Woods, 2011 )
There has besides been calls for the Government to travel faster on programs for flexible working hours for lone parents nevertheless ‘business instance for flexible working has been proven with most employers holding that people work best when they have a work/life balance. ‘ ( Weir, 2011 )
However it is of import to observe that in footings of poorness obliteration at that place has been an betterment. Single parents ‘ employment rate has surely risen, from 40 % in the early 1980s to 56.6 % in 2009. ( Giullari, 2009 )
For the Government ‘s policies to work, there has to be ‘sustainable, flexible work for lone parents to be employed in. Under this public assistance ideology one of the cardinal premises is that all grownups should be in work even if it means unstable employment ‘ . ( Lewis and Giullari, 2005 )
Ahrends debates although consecutive authoritiess have promoted work as the path out of poorness and that many individual parents are better off in paid work this is non ever the instance: 21 % of kids whose individual parent is in full clip work still fall below the poorness line, as do 29 % of kids whose individual parent is working portion clip. 4 out of 10 kids populating in poorness are in a individual parent family, and 9 out of 10 of them are female parents. More than 20 % of adult females have persistently low incomes, assisting, instead than coercing, these adult females is the reply.
Finch et Al ( 2004 ) discusses that legion surveies have suggested that Britain ‘s parents are ‘failing, kids are suffering and have hapless moral, societal and rational upbringing ‘ . And it has been said that ‘children from individual parent households are ‘worse behaved ‘ , kids raised by individual female parents are twice every bit likely to misconduct as those born into traditional two-parent households ‘ . ( Paton, 2011 )
When a lone parent starts work, there are many alterations to day-to-day life. and the lives of their households and other household members. ‘All of this including the societal, work, carer and school scenes are cardinal elements to work sustainability ; this has non yet been consistently explored in research. ‘ ( Millar and Ridge, 2009 )
Lone parents are a turning group in Great Britain and elsewhere and now represent one one-fourth of households with kids ( Haskey 2002 ) . In the longer term, possibly one half of British kids will go through through a non-intact household at some phase in their childhood. Lone parents have been an of import country of societal policy survey, given their high rates of reception of societal aid. Their low incomes may be traced to low rates of economic activity, low rates of care reception, and comparatively lower net incomes when in paid work.
A batch of individual parents do desire to work and for good grounds such as the sense of fiscal independency they get but besides to put good illustrations for their kids – nevertheless with the current alterations to the societal policies environing lone parents and their benefits and the extroverted alterations mean that they feel stray and vulnerable.
In decision lone parents are confronting a altering environment due to the budget cuts and the decrease in services. ‘With the Coalition Government there has been a displacement off from back uping lone parents being full clip carers at place to an employment-based maternal theoretical account. There is a rhetoric focal point and way towards back uping employment and now the move to compulsory work-related demands. Lone parents with kids five old ages or over are treated the same as any other unemployed claimant. ‘ ( Woods, 2011 )
‘Family-friendly employment with a work/life balance are non now portion of the authorities ‘s policies and without action from both the Government and employers, many individual parents will stay in the poorness trap. ‘ ( Woods, 2011 )
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