Everyone knows that in presents there are many possibilities and ways to larn. but in Latvia this is really topical subject right now. Many of the high school alumnuss want to larn abroad. And I do non believe that this is good. because like about half of the pupils or people that go to larn abroad. ne’er comes back to the native state. That is why I have chosen this topical subject. I am traveling to analyze educational systems in these states. I am traveling to canvass some of the 12th class pupils about what are they believing about larning in USA. I want to accomplish that sort of place when a pupil reads my research undertaking and particularly the higher instruction in Latvia portion he changes his head and corsets to larn here. My hypothesis for this Research Work is – the instruction systems in Latvia and in the USA are different and this is a ground why people in Latvia choose the USA for surveies really frequently. The Aim of the Research Work is to compare the instruction systems in the USA and in Latvia and to happen out in-between school pupils sentiment about surveies in Latvia and in the USA. The chief aims of the Research Work are:
• To roll up the information about educational system in Latvia
• To roll up the information about educational system in the USA
• To do a questionnaire and analyse the consequences of in-between school pupils sentiment about surveies in Latvia and in the USA
Educational system in USA
Education in the United States is provided chiefly by authorities. with control and funding coming from three degrees: federal. province. and local. School attending is compulsory and about cosmopolitan at the primary and secondary degrees. At these degrees. school course of study. support. instruction. and other policies are set through locally elected school boards with legal power over school territories. School territories are normally separate from other local legal powers. with independent functionaries and budgets. Educational criterions and standardised testing determinations are normally made by province authoritiess. The age for mandatory instruction vary by province. get downing at the age five to eight and stoping at the age of 14 to eighteen. A turning figure of provinces are now necessitating school attending until the age of 18. [ 6 ]
1. 1 Preschool
There are no compulsory public prekindergarten or creche plans in the United States. The federal authorities financess the preschool plan for kids of low-income households. but most households are on their ain with respect to happening a preschool or child care. In the big metropoliss. there are sometimes upper-class preschools providing to the kids of the wealthy. [ 6 ]
1. 2 Elementary and Secondary Education
Schooling is compulsory for all kids in the United States. but the age scope for which school attending is required varies from province to province. Most kids begin simple instruction with kindergarten ( normally five to six old ages old ) and finish secondary instruction with 12th class ( normally eighteen old ages old ) . In some instances. students may be promoted beyond the following regular class. Some provinces allow pupils to go forth school at the age of 14–17 with parental permission. before completing high school. Most parents send their kids to either a populace or private establishment. Harmonizing to authorities informations. tenth part of pupils are enrolled in private schools.
Approximately 85 % of pupils enter the public schools. mostly because they are “free” ( revenue enhancement loads by school territories vary from country to country ) . Most pupils attend school for around six hours per twenty-four hours. and normally anyplace from 175 to 185 yearss per twelvemonth. Most schools have a summer interruption period for about two and half months from June through August. This interruption is much longer than in many other states. Originally. “summer holiday. ” as it is conversationally called. allowed pupils to take part in the harvest period during the summer. However. this remains mostly by tradition. [ 6 ] Parents may besides take to educate their ain kids at place ; 1. 7 % of kids are educated in this mode.
1. 2. 1 Junior high school
Junior high school is any school intermediate between simple school and high school. It normally includes 7th and 8th class. and sometimes 6th or 9th class. In some locations. junior high school includes 9th class merely. leting pupils to set to a high school environment. Middle school is frequently used alternatively of junior high school when demographic factors increase the figure of younger pupils. At this clip. pupils are given more independency as taking their ain categories. Normally. get downing in 9th class. classs become portion of a student’s official transcript. Future employers or colleges may desire to see steady betterment in classs and a good attending record on the official transcript. Therefore. pupils are encouraged to take much more duty for their instruction. [ 6 ]
1. 3 Higher instruction
Post-secondary instruction in the United States is known as college or university and normally consists of four old ages of survey at an establishment of higher acquisition. There are 4. 352* colleges. universities. and junior colleges in the USA. Students traditionally apply to have admittance into college. with changing troubles of entryway. Schools differ in their fight and repute ; by and large. the most esteemed schools are private. instead than public. Admissions criteria involve the asperity and classs earned in high school classs taken. category ranking. and standardised trial. Most colleges besides consider more subjective factors such as a committedness to extracurricular activities. a personal essay. and an interview. While numerical factors seldom of all time are absolute needed values. each college normally has a unsmooth threshold below which admittance is improbable. [ 2 ] *- January 2009. informations from World Wide Web. erectile dysfunction. gov
Once admitted. pupils engage in undergraduate survey. which consists of fulfilling university and category demands to accomplish a bachelor’s grade in a field of concentration known as a major. The most common method consists of four old ages of survey taking to a Bachelor of Arts ( B. A. ) . a Bachelor of Science ( B. S. ) . or sometimes another bachelor’s grade such as Bachelor of Fine Arts ( B. F. A. ) . Bachelor of Social Work ( B. S. W. ) . Bachelor of Engineering ( B. Eng. . ) or Bachelor of Philosophy ( B. Phil. ) Five-Year Professional Architecture plans offer the Bachelor of Architecture Degree ( B. Arch. ) Professional grades such as jurisprudence. medical specialty. pharmaceutics. and dental medicine. are offered as alumnus survey after gaining at least three old ages of undergraduate schooling or after gaining a bachelor’s grade depending on the plan.
These professional Fieldss do non necessitate a specific undergraduate major. though medical specialty. pharmaceutics. and dental medicine have set prerequisite classs that must be taken earlier enrollment. [ 2 ] Some pupils choose to go to a community college for two old ages prior to further survey at another college or university. In most provinces. community colleges are operated either by a division of the province university or by local particular territories capable to counsel from a province bureau. Community colleges may present Associate of Arts ( AA ) or Associate of Science ( AS ) degree after two old ages. Those seeking to go on their instruction may reassign to a four-year college or university. Some community colleges have automatic registration understandings with a local four-year college. where the community college provides the first two old ages of survey and the university provides the staying old ages of survey. sometimes all on one campus.
The community college awards the associate’s grade. and the university awards the bachelor’s and master’s grades. Graduate survey. conducted after obtaining an initial grade and sometimes after several old ages of professional work. leads to a more advanced grade such as a master’s grade. which could be a Maestro of Arts ( MA ) . Maestro of Science ( MS ) . Master of Business Administration ( MBA ) . or other less common master’s grades such as Master of Education ( MEd ) . and Master of Fine Arts ( MFA ) . After extra old ages of survey and sometimes in concurrence with the completion of a master’s grade. pupils may gain a Doctor of Philosophy ( Ph. D. ) or other doctorial grade. such as Doctor of Arts. Doctor of Education. Doctor of Theology. Doctor of Medicine. Doctor of Pharmacy. Doctor of Physical Therapy. or Doctor of Jurisprudence. Some plans. such as medical specialty. have formal apprenticeship procedures post-graduation like residence and internship which must be completed after graduation and before one is considered to be to the full trained.
Other professional plans like jurisprudence and concern have no formal apprenticeship demands after graduation. [ 3 ] Entrance into alumnus plans normally depends upon a student’s undergraduate academic public presentation or professional experience every bit good as their mark on a standardised entryway test. Many alumnus and jurisprudence schools do non necessitate experience after gaining a bachelor’s grade to come in their plans ; nevertheless. concern school campaigners are normally required to derive a few old ages of professional work experience before using. Merely 8. 9 % of pupils of all time receive graduate student grades. and most. after obtaining their bachelor’s grade. continue straight into the work force. [ 7 ]
1. 4 Basic Curricular Structure
By and large. at the high school degree. pupils take a wide assortment of categories without particular accent in any peculiar topic. Curricula vary widely in quality and rigidness. The undermentioned topics are reasonably universally required in the United States: • Science ( normally two old ages minimal. usually biological science. chemical science and natural philosophies ) • Mathematicss ( normally two old ages minimal. usually including algebra. geometry. algebra II. and/or trigonometry ) • English ( normally four old ages minimum. including literature. humanistic disciplines. etc. ) • Social Science ( normally three old ages minimal. including assorted history. government/economics classs ) • Physical instruction ( at least one twelvemonth )
Many provinces require a “health” class in which pupils learn about anatomy. nutrition. first assistance. gender. and birth control. Anti-drug usage plans are besides normally portion of wellness classs. In many instances. nevertheless. options are provided for pupils to “test out” or execute independent survey in order to finish this demand. Foreign linguistic communication and some signifier of art instruction are besides a compulsory portion of the course of study in some schools. [ 6 ] 1. 5 Extracurricular activities
A major feature of American schools is the high precedence given to athleticss. nines and activities by the community. the parents. the schools and the pupils themselves. Extracurricular activities are educational activities non falling within the range of the regular course of study but under the supervising of the school. These activities can widen to big sums of clip outside the normal school twenty-four hours ; home-schooled pupils. nevertheless. are non usually allowed to take part. Student engagement in athleticss plans. bore squads. sets. and spirit groups can amount to hours of patterns and public presentations. Most provinces have organisations which develop regulations for competition between groups. These organisations are normally forced to implement clip bounds on hours practiced as a requirement for engagement.
Many schools besides have non-varsity athleticss squads. nevertheless these are normally afforded less resources and attending. The thought of holding athleticss squads associated with high schools is comparatively alone to the United States in comparing with other states. Sports plans and their related games. particularly football and/or hoops. are major events for American pupils and for larger schools can be a major beginning of financess for school territories. High school athletic competitions frequently generate intense involvement in the community.
Inner metropolis schools functioning hapless pupils are to a great extent scouted by college and even professional managers. with national attending given to which colleges outstanding high school pupils choose to go to. State high school title tourneies football and hoops attract high degrees of public involvement. In add-on to athleticss. legion non-athletic extracurricular activities are available in American schools. both public and private. Activities include musical groups. processing sets. student authorities. school newspapers. scientific discipline carnivals. argument squads. and nines focused on an academic country or cultural involvements. [ 5 ]
1. 6 Elective courses
Many high schools offer a broad assortment of elected classs. although the handiness of such classs depends upon each peculiar school’s fiscal resources and desired course of study accents. Common types of electives include:
• Visual humanistic disciplines ( pulling. sculpture. picture. picture taking. movie ) • Performing humanistic disciplines ( play. set. chorus. orchestra. dance ) • Technology instruction ( woodworking. metalworking. car fix. robotics ) • Computers ( word processing. scheduling. in writing design ) • Athletics ( transverse state. football. baseball. hoops. path and field. swimming. tennis. gymnastic exercises. H2O Polo. association football. wrestle. cheerleading. volleyball. lacrosse. ice hockey. field hockey. pugilism. skiing/snowboarding ) • Publishing ( journalism/student newspaper. yearbook/annual. literary magazine ) • Foreign languages ( Spanish. Gallic are common ; Chinese. Latin. Greek. German. Italian. Arabic. and Nipponese are less common ) [ 5 ]
1. 7 Advanced Courses
Many high schools provide Advanced Placement ( AP ) or International Baccalaureate ( IB ) courses. These are particular signifiers of honours categories where the course of study is more ambitious and lessons more sharply paced than standard classs. AP or IB classs are normally taken during the 11th or 12th class of high school. [ 6 ]
1. 8 Home Schooling
There was 1. 3 million kids that were home schooled in 2008. up 74 % from 1999 when the US Department of Education foremost started maintaining statistics. This was 2. 9 % of all kids. Parents choice moral or spiritual grounds for place schooling their kids. [ 1 ]
1. 9 School classs
As you can see in the tabular array ( Table N. 1 ) . in the U. S. the first twelvemonth of compulsory schooling Begins with kids at the age of five or six. Childs are so placed in twelvemonth groups known as classs. get downing with first class and culminating in 12th class. Typical ages and grade groupings in public and private schools may be found through the U. S. Department of Education. Many different fluctuations exist across the state. [ 2 ] For more foreseen strategy of instruction in USA see Appendix N. 1.
1. 10 Rating graduated table
In schools in the United States kids are continually assessed throughout the school twelvemonth by their instructors. and study cards are issued to parents at changing intervals. By and large the tonss for single assignments and trials are recorded for each pupil in a grade book. along with the maximal figure of points for each assignment. At any clip. the entire figure of points for a pupil when divided by the entire figure of possible points produces a per centum class which can be translated to a missive class. Letter classs are frequently used on study cards at the terminal of a marking period. although the current class may be available at other times. Although rating graduated tables normally differ from school to school. the class graduated table which seems to be most common is as follows. The scaling is based on a graduated table of 0-100 or a percentile. Note that in some legal powers the “D” class ( or that below 70 ) is considered a neglecting class. In other legal powers a “D” class is considered go throughing in certain categories. and neglecting in others. If you need a construct of rating graduated table. see Table N. 2. [ 6 ] Table N. 2 Example rating graduated table in USA
|E. N. U or F |D |C |B |A | | |- | |+ |- | |arodpamatskola |vocational basic school |9-year instruction may be |2 |no | | | |incomplete | | | |arodvidusskola |vocational secondary school|9-year instruction |3 |no | |arodgimnazija |vocational secondary school |9-year instruction |4 |yes | |arodskola |vocational school |general secondary instruction |1-2 |no | | | ( postsecondary ) | | | |
As it is seen from table ( Table N. 4 ) . merely one type of vocational schools – four twelvemonth vocational secondary school – at the same time to vocational preparation provide general secondary instruction and. accordingly. entree to higher instruction. [ 10 ]
2. 8 Access to Higher Education
In rule. entree to higher instruction is general for all holders of general secondary instruction certifications. However. the establishments of higher instruction are free to find which of the elected topics must hold been taken by the applier at the secondary school in order to go eligible for admittance to a chosen plan. There are no fixed all-Latvian regulations finding the admittance system and it may differ between different establishments and even between different modules of the same establishment of higher instruction. The chief signifiers of admittance process may be as follows:
• 1 to 4 competitory entryway scrutinies ; • a competition of sheepskin plus an interview by the Admission board. which may include general inquiries in topics of import to the chosen forte ; • merely a competition of sheepskin ( normally judging by the Markss in topics of import to the chosen plan and/or mean grade in the secondary school certification ) ; • cognition of Latvian linguistic communication is evaluated in these instances when the applier has non had Latvian as the linguistic communication of direction in secondary school. An admittance board dwelling of staff members is formed in all higher educational establishments to transport out admittance processs in conformity with conditions announced at least 5 months before. [ 9 ]
2. 9 Higher Education
2. 9. 1 Academic higher instruction ( Akademiska augstaka izglitiba ) is understood as a general higher instruction based upon cardinal and/or applied scientific discipline. Academic instruction can be ( and in most instances is ) divided into two phases. A pupil has to execute a thesis of a Research Work at the terminal of each phase. I. First grade
An academic grade and a Bachelor sheepskin ( Bakalaura grads ) can be awarded after consecutive completion of the first phase. Bachelor grade is an intermediate grade and can be treated as a completed higher instruction merely in these instances when continuance of plan is 4+ old ages. However. portion of the pupils leave universities holding a bachelor`s grade and happen their spread in the labour market. II. Second grade
Academic maestro grade ( Magistra grads ) and the appropriate sheepskin is awarded after the 2nd phase of academic instruction and should be treated as a complete university-type higher instruction. Master grade or a degree equivalent to it ( e. g. medical surveies are of a degree of master`s grade but name of master`s grade is non applicable ) can be awarded after entire continuance of 5-7 old ages of university surveies. Master grade ( or equivalent ) is required for admittance to doctorial surveies. III. Higher grades
There are two of doctorial grades in Latvia
Degree of Ph. D. ( Doktora grads )
Holders of master`s grade are eligible for doctorial surveies and the holders of Ph. D. is expected to be achieved in a 3-4 twelvemonth period of full-time doctorial surveies after a public defence of doctorial thesis. After defence of habilitation thesis you are awarded with a grade of habilitated physician ( habilitets doktors ) .
Doctoral grades are awarded by specialised councils:
• publicity council ( promocijas padome ) – presenting the grade doktors merely • habilitation council ( habilitacijas padome ) – presenting both doctorial grades. The ordinances for presenting of doctorial grades are set and the publicity and habilitation councils are appointed by Latvian Science Council ( Latvijas Zinatnes Padome ) . 2. 9. 2 Higher professional instruction ( Profesionala augstaka izglitiba ) is a higher instruction based upon applied scientific discipline. It provides cognition and accomplishments for professional activities.
Skill of the plans of professional surveies can take topographic point independently of academic surveies. at the same time to or after them. Non-university type higher instruction establishments offer higher professional instruction plans taking straight to professional makings. To be treated as a completed higher instruction. the continuance of professional surveies has to be non less than 4 old ages. University-type higher instruction establishments may offer 1-2 twelvemonth plans taking to professional making after accomplishing unmarried man grade ( bakalaurs ) . [ 8 ]