It is non possible to compose about pulling and the expressive humanistic disciplines as taught by Natalie Rogers without, besides, including other art signifiers such as authorship, dancing, music, or play ( Rogers, 1993 ) . She explained that the different art signifiers interplay and heighten each other. She calls this the originative connexion ( 4 ) . For case, a client could pull to show her feelings and so derive further understanding by composing about her drawing ( 78 ) .
Therefore, harmonizing to Rogers ( 1993 ) what one writes about pulling applies to the other expressive humanistic disciplines every bit good. She wrote of utilizing humanistic disciplines in a supportive scene to advance growing and healing. She emphasized it is the procedure, non the merchandise, that is of import. It is about pulling to show feelings, non about making a “ pretty ” image ( 2 ) .
The doctrine underlying her work is based on person-centered theory which was developed by her male parent, Carl Rogers. He emphasized the healer ‘s function as being empathetic, lovingness, and congruent ( 3 ) . Natalie developed her involvement in art through her female parent who had been an creative person ( Preface, XV ) . Natalie discovered mending through the humanistic disciplines for herself and suggested it for her clients. Their feedback told her it was helpful ( 5 ) .
Natalie described three conditions are needed to further creativeness. They are psychological safety, psychological freedom, and offering stimulating and ambitious experiences. She explained psychological safety as defined by her male parent involves accepting the client unconditionally, non measuring the art, and empathic apprehension. He defined freedom as permission for any type of symbolic look ( 14 ) . Natalie farther explained that this freedom refers to symbolic look and non any and all types of behaviour. The expressive humanistic disciplines are an ideal agencies for symbolic look ( 17 ) .
Natalie found the first two conditions entirely were non plenty because it is possible to speak about creativeness without going involved in the procedure. She found it necessary to provide art stuffs along with suggestions to excite originative juices ( 18 ) . It was besides of import to state clients that engagement in art activities is voluntary so that they ne’er felt like they were under force per unit area to make ( 20 ) .
The benefits of expressive humanistic disciplines are to place and be in touch with feelings, explore unconscious stuff, release energy, addition penetration, work out jobs, and discover intuitive, fabulous, and religious dimensions of the ego ( 96 ) . It is possible for clients to transform pent-up feelings into constructive energy ( 70 ) . It is besides utile for people who are extremely rational and verbal. These clients tend to discourse their jobs without sing any feelings ( 96 ) . An advantage that drawing has over the other art signifiers is that the images are enduring. One can go on to reflect on a peculiar drawing for every bit long as one wants ( 70 ) .
Natalie goes on to explicate that colour, line, and signifier can uncover energy degrees every bit good as feelings. Colorss can be superb or dull, and lines can be jagged or smooth ( 69 ) . Art can set clients in touch with choler, greed, fright, or any other feeling clients might prefer to conceal ( 71 ) .
Natalie cautiousnesss against the psychoanalytic technique of the healer construing the drawing for the client which can do bitterness and inhibit future drawings ( 102 ) . She suggests some methods to assist the client interpret her ain drawing. For case, the creative person could compose several sentences to attach to the art which start with, “ I am, ” “ I have, ” or “ I feel. ” The client could entitle the image or list five words that spontaneously come to her as she looks at the image ( 78 ) .
Art therapy is besides recommended for serious perturbations such as eating upsets and cutting behaviour in order to better verbalisation and symbolic look. This helps the client to understand how interior feelings relate to harmful behaviours ( Dean, 2007, mentioning Bruch, et. al. , 1973, 58 ) . Art work AIDSs in the sublimation of these behaviours ( Milia, 2000, as cited by Dean, 2007, 66 ) .
Sanson, et. Al. ( 2004 as cited by Dean, 2007 ) describe pulling schemes for pull offing self-harm and eating upsets that include assorted theories such as cognitive and interpersonal restructuring, dynamic intercession, household therapy, and behavioural alteration, all of which can be adapted to the usage of art therapy ( 58 ) . Subjects in the art of eating upset and cutting clients can include word pictures of arms, fire, blood, and decease. Preferred colourss are frequently ruddy and black ( Gerber and Jacobson, 1982, as cited by Dean, 2007, 68 ) . Most dramatic are cuts and X ‘s drawn over organic structure parts ( Spring, 1993, as cited by Dean, 2007, 65 ) .
Dean ( 2007 ) describes a instance survey of Bonnie who suffered from an eating upset every bit good as cutting behaviour and suicide ideation. In group art therapy, she was diffident and timid, frequently declining to talk for long periods of clip. However, the images she created were filled with fury, sexual subjects, and Black Marias with holes. She was frequently unable to maintain the art work contained to the paper. When asked for associations to her art work, she would shrug in bewilderment showing a disjunction between her ideas and feelings. She did, nevertheless, possess an rational penetration into her jobs as stemming from an alcoholic male parent and an untreated, bipolar female parent who had abandoned the household. There was suspected but unproven sexual maltreatment by a comparative. Her male parent was unmindful to this maltreatment. Gradually, over a period of old ages, Bonnie was able to better her self-esteem with the aid of art therapy. She was finally able to sublimate her destructive behaviours utilizing art and to bring forth alternate solutions to jobs that had antecedently seemed unsurmountable. Her art work easy changed from violent word pictures to images stand foring her current experiences. After interrupting up with a fellow, she still drew a bosom with a hole, but now she included an pointer through the hole which transformed as it emerged on the other side of the bosom. The pointer lacked a point and connected to her face which had both a smiling and a scowl. She terminated intervention shortly after that pulling but returned for care assignments and was making good with a long term relationship and a stable, skilled occupation. She was contemplating returning to school to prosecute a college grade ( 70-78 ) .
Klorer ( 2006 ) in a household systems attack, describes utilizing art therapy with traumatized households. Issues to research in therapy are single reactions to the injury, researching the function each individual plays, assisting each household member to pass on their demands, and assisting household members to happen support, either from one another or outside of the household system ( 118 ) .
In researching single reactions, Consoli and Klorer ( 1995 ) as cited by Klorer ( 2006 ) , recommend that the first session include inquiring each household member to do a image about what happened. This brings the issue to the head in the beginning. Even in households that are conspiring in silence, there is frequently one member who is willing to pull the job from her position, irrespective of how others might experience. Four twelvemonth old Julie was such a kid. She and her sister had been shot by their female parent who so killed herself. The sister died. Julie needed to speak about this calamity, but her male parent was uncomfortable discoursing it. Julie drew what happened while depicting the incident and inquiring her male parent why her female parent shooting her and her sister. Her male parent could n’t reply why, but Julie ‘s pulling enabled him to go more comfy discoursing the calamity ( 118, 119 ) .
When it comes to researching functions, Klorer explains that in a household crisis prescribed functions can go overdone. For illustration, the organiser could go more stiff or the overactive kid could go more stirred. Conversely, bing functions cold displacement. For case, a female parent who is normally nurturing might release that function to a girl. As functions shift, other household members could happen themselves in a province of disequilibrium because they no longer hold a unafraid topographic point in the system. A instance illustration is 12 twelvemonth old David who began taking on the duties of his deceasing male parent. This was a immense load that did n’t let him to show his ain feelings of heartache because he did n’t desire to portray failing. David ‘s image showed him at the centre of the drawing and larger than everyone else with his arm on his female parent ‘s shoulder. Upon seeing this image, his female parent realized how much emphasis he was under and that she had been advancing that function for him. She and the healer devised ways for David to non experience he had to take attention of her ( 120, 121 ) .
When it comes to pass oning demands, Riley ( 2002 ) as citation by Klorer ( 2006 ) suggests sometimes the healer can assist the household accept the event as a life altering experience by reframing it as a accelerator for alteration to happen. A instance illustration is Mr. L. who brought his kids into therapy because they had witnessed the slaying of their female parent. The kids drew their female parent in the image as if nil had happened. Their male parent omitted her, “ because she is dead, ” he explained. The kids so began prosecuting in avoidant behaviour. One put his image over his caput and announced, “ It ‘s raining. ” The other kid copied and both began tittering. In subsequent drawings when asked to pull their female parent, both kids refused to pull her. It was clear the kids needed to happen a manner to sorrow their female parent as did the male parent. The healer suggested a memory book of happy memories of their female parent every bit good as those picturing the calamity. Both the male parent and kids participated in this procedure. The kids were bit by bit able to gestate their female parent and drew her inside a bosom “ because she will ever be in our Black Marias. ” The art helped them to reframe and show their heartache ( 121, 122 ) .
As to assisting a household happen support, Klorer ( 2006 ) describes a household in therapy because the male parent had murdered the girl. The female parent ‘s ain unsolved heartache made her incapable of run intoing the other kids ‘s basic needs allow alone covering with their heartache. When the kids spoke about their male parent in one session, the female parent was so heartsick she was unable to raise her caput off the tabular array. The female parent ‘s sister, who had antecedently played a maternal function in their drawn-out household, was invited to be a portion of the household art therapy so that a support system could be built for both the female parent and kids. The aunt was instrumental in assisting the kids express their feelings. Prior to her connection therapy, the kids drew merely happy images of the full household including male parent and sister as if nil had happened. The aunt did non desire to conspire with that false image and drew images showing her fury over what had occurred. The kids so realized their unsaid feelings were acceptable and began pulling a broad scope of emotions including choler and unhappiness ( 122, 123 ) .
In decision, this research has explored the usage of art therapy to show feelings. Natalie Rogers ( 1993 ) described how all the art signifiers interplay and heighten each other in “ the originative connexion ” which is besides the rubric of her book. The paper looked at the usage of pulling to assist clients with eating upsets or cutting behaviour. The research besides described how households who are victims of injury can show their feelings through art. Pulling can be transformative for a broad scope of people. It can be spiritually elating for those who are healthy, and it can assist in the recovery of clients with serious jobs or mental unwellnesss.